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PICOT

PICOT

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Making a significant focus on the PICO (T) question review, a single aspect would be considered and discussed. This is; in patients with dementia, is using medications more effective than alternative therapies (i.e. art, music, tasks) for a reduction in agitation within one to three hours? This PICOT question is an interventional question. It addresses agitation in dementia patients, and which interventions are most effective.

The clinical issue of agitation in dementia patients is important. Much of the time, medications are used for a reduction in agitation. This method has pros and cons. By using a medication, it is considered a chemical restraint, and proper documentation needs to be implemented to ensure that the facility is in compliance with state regulations. Another issue, too, with the use of these medications in the elderly is the way the body processes them. The elderly have physiological changes that affect the way their body processes medications. There is a lowering of hepatic blood flow – which slows down the rate of which the body uses and metabolizes the drug (Wooten, 2012). Another factor to consider is that many of these medications can increase the risk of falls in the elderly. Not only are the elderly more susceptible to the sedative effect, hypotension can be induced – both of which can elicit more falls in said population (Lindsey, 2009). That being said, there is a use, as well as evidence based practice, that alternative therapies can be effective to reduce agitation in the elderly.

There is evidence that alternative therapies can be used to reduce agitation. Some examples of alternative therapies include: art therapy, aromatherapy, music therapy, and activity therapy. There is even something called bright-light therapy that is used for those with sundowning, and this has shown some effect in studies. (Douglas, James, Ballard, 2004). In Hong Kong, a study was performed using aromatherapy in Chinese dementia patients. Lavender inhalation was used, and found to be effective in reducing anxiety in these patients (Lin, Chan, Ng, Lam, 2007).

Of course, this does not in any way disregard the effectiveness and necessity of using medications to address agitation. Unfortunately, alternative therapies do not always work and then the use of an anti-anxiety medication is warranted. It is important, though, to ensure that alternative interventions are attempted in order to reach the best possible outcome with the least side effects.

Nurses are quite busy throughout their day, and do not always have the time to intervene using alternative modalities. Therefore, it is important that auxiliary staff – such as recreational staff and nursing assistants are taught how to utilize these alternative modalities, as it is proven in evidence-based practice that there are better outcomes for the patient by using alternative therapies in dementia patients. Agitation in dementia patients can be decreased in a reasonable amount of time by utilizing strategies of alternative therapies and are just as, if not more, effective than the use of psychotropic medication.

References:

Biese, K., LaMantia, M., Shofer, M., McCall, B., Roberts, E., Stearns, S. C., Principe, S., Kizer, J. S., Cairns, C. B., & Busby-Whitehead, J. (2014): A randomized trial exploring the effect of a telephone call follow-up on care plan compliance among older adults discharged home from the emergency department. Academic Emergency Medicine, 21(2), 188-195. doi:10.1111/acem.12308

Cossette, S., Frasure-Smith, N., Vadeboncoeur, A., McCusker, & Guertin, M. C. (2015). The impact of an emergency department nursing intervention on continuity of care, self-care capacities and psychological symptoms: Secondary outcomes of a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52, 666-676. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.12.007

Cossette, S., Vadeboncoeur, A., Frasure-Smith, N., McCusker, J., Perreault, D., & Guertin, M. C. (2015). Randomized controlled trial of a nursing intervention to reduce emergency department revisits. Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine, 17(1), 13-20. doi:10.2310/8000.2013.131291

Franzen, C., Brulin, C., Stenlund, H., & Bjornstig, U. (2008). Injured road users’ health-related quality of life after telephone intervention: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18, 108-116. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02436.x

Guss, D. A., Leland, H., & Castillo, E. M. (2013). The impact of post-discharge patient call back on patient satisfaction in two academic emergency departments. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 44(1), 236-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.07.074

Wong, F. K., Chow, S., Chang, K., Lee, A., & Liu, J. (2004). Effects of nurse follow-up on emergency room revisits: a randomized controlled trial. Social Science & Medicine, 59(11), 2207-2218. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.03.028

Douglas, S., James, I., Ballard, C. (2004): Non-pharmacological interventions in dementia. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. Retrieved July 9, 2014 from http://apt.rcpsych.org/content/10/3/171.full

Lin, P., Chan, W., Ng, B., Lam, L. (2007). Efficacy of aromatherapy (Lavender angustifolia) as an intervention for agitated behaviours in Chinese older persons with dementia: A cross-over randomized trial. University of Hong Kong. Retrieved July 10, 2014, from http://hub.hku.hk/handle/10722/174236

Lindsey, P.L. (2009). Psychotropic Medication Use among Older Adults: What All Nurses Need to Know. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. Retrieved July 9, 2014, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3128509/

Wooten, J. M. (2012). Pharmacotherapy Considerations in Elderly Adults. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved July 9, 2014, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22864103

APPENDCES

Appendix 1

Evidence Appraisal Review

Citation:

Biese, K., LaMantia, M., Shofer, M., McCall, B., Roberts, E., Stearns, S. C., Principe, S., Kizer, J. S., Cairns, C. B., & Busby-Whitehead, J. (2014). A randomized trial exploring the effect of a telephone call follow-up on care plan compliance among older adults discharged home from the emergency department. Academic Emergency Medicine, 21(2), 188-195. doi:10.1111/acem.12308

Study objective/ intervention or exposures compared Design Sample (N) Intervention Outcomes studied (how measured) Results Level
To assess the impact of a follow-up phone call by a nurse post discharge has on older patients’ adherence to discharge instructions and likelihood to return to the ED. Prospective randomized control trial (RCT) Patients 65 years old or older were selected from Sunday, Monday, or Tuesday across a 10-week period, to facilitate phone calls during the week (2-3 days post discharge). Each day, 9 randomly selected discharged patients were randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups, using a block randomization (researches pulled a colored marble out of a bag). Eligible: 180 patients

2 were excluded as on those days, they were the 10th patient intercepted. 18 declined, 19 could not be reached for follow-up, 21 excluded due to incomplete or disqualifying circumstances post acceptance Accepted: 120 patients Control: 46 patients Placebo: 35 patients Intervention: 39 patients

Control group: received standard discharge instructions and no follow-up phone call Placebo group: received standard discharge instructions and a scripted patient satisfaction survey 1-3 days post discharge Intervention group: received standard discharge instructions and a follow-up phone call by a trained nurse 1-3 days post discharge, to review and assess discharge instructions with the patient Each patient in the study received a study-related phone interview 5-8 days post discharge and 30-35 days post discharge. Dependent Variables Respondents report of follow-up appointment already scheduled Date of follow-up appointment (if applicable) Whether new ED prescriptions had been filled Patient’s comprehension of medication indications and dosing Whether or not the patient had an ED visit post discharge Secondary variable: economic analysis of impact of return ED visits All study groups were not significantly different on gender, race, age, or whether the patient versus a caregiver was interviewed. While differences existed on all variables between groups, statistically significant differences were not observed in most dependent variables (p-values > 0.05). The intervention group was more likely to attend their follow-up appointment within 5-days post discharge than the other groups (54% vs. 37% control & 20% placebo; p=0.05). 2
Study PICO(T):

For ER patients 65 years old or older, does a follow-up phone call by a nurse 1-3 days post discharge along with standard discharge instruction, compared to standard discharge instructions and no follow-up phone call or standard discharge instructions and a follow-up satisfaction survey phone call, impact patients’ adherence to discharge instructions 35-days post discharge?

Citation:

Cossette, S., Frasure-Smith, N., Vadeboncoeur, A., McCusker, & Guertin, M. C. (2015). The impact of an emergency department nursing intervention on continuity of care, self-care capacities and psychological symptoms: Secondary outcomes of a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52, 666-676. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.12.007

Study objective/ intervention or exposures compared Design Sample (N) Intervention Outcomes studied (how measured) Results Level
To assess the impact additional discharge instructions (i.e., a nurse meeting prior to discharge) and two follow-up phone calls by the nurse post discharge have on patients’ perceptions of care, illness, symptom management, medication adherence, and psychological symptoms, for higher returning risk adult patients. Secondary analysis of a randomized control trial (RCT) Adult patients who were at higher risk of returning to the ER (based on risk criteria) being discharged from the ER during a 4-year period were randomly selected and assigned to either the control group or the intervention group. Patients were randomized to groups by a statistician and the nurse recruiting patients was blind to the assignment at time of recruitment. Eligible: 1,436 patients 825 had logistical issues, 346 refused Accepted: 256 patients Control group: 133 patients originally, 95 for this analysis (38 dropped out or were unable to be contacted for final assessment) Intervention group: 132 patients originally, 108 for this analysis (131 received first encounter, 121 received first follow-up call, 126 received second follow-up call; 24 dropped out or were unable to be contacted for final assessment) Control group: standard level of care (i.e., standard discharge instructions without additional follow-up) Intervention group: standard discharge instructions, plus an additional nurse meeting prior to discharge, a follow-up phone call by a nurse 2-4 days post discharge, and a second follow-up phone call by a nurse 7-10 days post discharge. An interview of participants included validated measures of perceived health, self-care, and psychological variables. Dependent Variables: Variables included the following categories (with subvariables within each category) rated on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) and values were then scored: • Continuity of healthcare post discharge • Perception of their illness • Self-care goals and perceptions • Psychological factors related to illness and ER visit • Medication adherence Both the control group and the intervention group were similar on all demographic variables, and the characteristics of the initial ER visit, except the intervention group was more likely to arrive to the ER via ambulance (23% vs 10%; p=0.038). Intervention patients had statistically significantly higher values on the following variables: • Perceptions of health care continuity (p=0.003) • Perceptions of treatment (p=0.037) • Perceptions of self-care management (p=0.021) • Psychological measures, e.g., anxiety (p=0.007) Tertiary outcomes: Additional qualitative information was gathered about the intervention group. 2
Study PICO(T):

For adult patients to the ER, does a series of additional nursing encounters (both in person and follow-up phone calls) in addition to standard discharge instructions, compared to standard discharge instructions alone, impact patients’ perceptions of treatment, healthcare continuity, self-care management, and psychological state related to their visit within 30-days post discharge?

Citation:

Cossette, S., Vadeboncoeur, A., Frasure-Smith, N., McCusker, J., Perreault, D., & Guertin, M. C. (2015). Randomized controlled trial of a nursing intervention to reduce emergency department revisits. Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine, 17(1), 13-20. doi:10.2310/8000.2013.131291

Study objective/ intervention or exposures compared Design Sample (N) Intervention Outcomes studied (how measured) Results Level
To assess the impact of additional discharge instruction (i.e., a nurse meeting prior to discharge) and two follow-up phone calls by the nurse post discharge have on return rates to the ED. Randomized control trial (RCT) Adult patients who were at higher risk of returning to the ER (based on risk criteria) being discharged from the ER during a 4-year period were randomly selected and assigned to either the control group or the intervention group. Patients were randomized to groups by a statistician and the nurse recruiting patients was blind to the assignment at time of recruitment. Eligible: 1,436 patients 825 had logistical issues, 346 refused Accepted: 256 patients Control group: 133 patients Intervention group: 132 patients (131 received first encounter, 121 received first follow-up call, 126 received second follow-up call) Control group: standard level of care (i.e., standard discharge instructions without additional follow-up) Intervention group: standard discharge instructions, plus an additional nurse meeting prior to discharge, a follow-up phone call by a nurse 2-4 days post discharge, and a second follow-up phone call by a nurse 7-10 days post discharge. Dependent Variables: Whether or not the patient returned to the ED (“Yes” or “No”) Secondary variable: The amount of time between discharge and the patient’s return to the ED (if applicable) measured in number of days. Both the control group and the intervention groups were not significantly different on all demographic characteristics. The intervention group was not statistically more like to not return to the ED compared to the control group (p=0.81). Additionally, the control group and the intervention group were not statistically different in the amount of time that passed between discharge and return to the ED (if applicable; p-values >0.05). 2
Study PICO(T):

For adult patients who were at higher risk of returning to the ED, does a series of additional nursing encounters in addition to standard discharge instructions, compared to standard discharge instruction alone, impact ED return rates within 30-days post discharge?

Citation:

Franzen, C., Brulin, C., Stenlund, H., & Bjornstig, U. (2008). Injured road users’ health-related quality of life after telephone intervention: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18, 108-116. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02436.x

Study objective/ intervention or exposures compared Design Sample (N) Intervention Outcomes studied (how measured) Results Level
To assess the impact of a follow-up phone call 3-weeks post discharge by a nurse for patients who have experienced a “road-based trauma” (i.e., car crash, bicycle accident, pedestrian injury) on health quality indicators.` Randomized control trial (RCT) Patients were selected on a sample of days across two years. Patients were selected using a stratified consecutive sample to get a representative sample from the three patient populations. Patients from each of the stratified populations were randomly assigned to the control or intervention group. Eligible participants: 920 = 321 car occupants, 305 cyclists (cycle), 294 pedestrians (ped) Accepted participation: 568 participants = 321 car, 305 cycle, 294 ped Control group: 81 car, 101 cycle, 98 ped 6-month follow-up completion: 71 car, 88 cycle, 91 ped Intervention group: 87 car, 99 cycle, 102 ped 3-month follow-up phone call: 84 car, 98 cycle, 97 ped 6-month follow-up completion: 76 car, 90 cycle, 94 ped Control group: standard discharge instructions, with no follow-up phone call Intervention group: standard discharge instructions plus nurse follow-up phone call 3-weeks post discharge A paper-based survey was administered to study “health-related quality of life” of the individual. Dependent Variables Questions of health-related quality of life included factors of:

• mobility

• ability for self-care

• ability to do their normal activities

• pain and discomfort

• anxiety or depression.

The questionnaire was administered 2-weeks post discharge, 3-months post discharge (for the intervention group) and 6-months post discharge (at study completion).

Both control groups and intervention groups were mostly similar, with only statistically significant differences on two variables in two of the groups (i.e., gender differences in the cycle group, p=0.029; gender differences in who received advice as part of the intervention in the cycle group, p=0.037) At two-weeks post discharge (prior to intervention) no differences were observed between groups (p>0.05). After 6-months post discharge, the intervention groups rated the health quality metrics better than the control groups (p<0.001). Significant differences between control and intervention groups varied by subgroup type. 2
Study PICO(T):

For ER patients of road-based traumas (i.e., car crashes, bicycle accidents, pedestrian accidents), does a follow-up phone call by a nurse 3-weeks post discharge in addition to standard discharge instructions, compared to standard discharge instructions with no follow-up phone call, impact health-related quality of life metrics within 6-months post discharge?

Citation:

Guss, D. A., Leland, H., & Castillo, E. M. (2013). The impact of post-discharge patient call back on patient satisfaction in two academic emergency departments. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 44(1), 236-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.07.074

Study objective/ intervention or exposures compared Design Sample (N) Intervention Outcomes studied (how measured) Results Level
To assess the impact of healthcare provider phone calls post discharge from the ER on patients’ overall satisfaction with their ER visit. Retrospective analysis The study design consisted of analyzing Press Ganey survey data of two emergency departments. Within the survey, a question asked “After discharge, did you receive a phone call from an ED staff member?” Survey data from a 12-month period were used for this study, with surveys mailed to a random sample of 50% of patients who visited the ED during the time period. Eligible: 30,000 surveys were mailed; Returned survey: 2,250 (7%) were returned No follow-up call group: 1,903 (85% of those returned) Follow-up call group: 347 (15% of those returned) Control group (n follow-up call group): This group reported not receiving a follow-up phone call from an ED staff member (checked “No” when asked). Treatment group (follow-up call group): This group reported receiving a follow-up phone call from an ED staff member at an unspecified time (checked “Yes” when asked). As mentioned, survey data from the Press Ganey survey were used to collect information for this retrospective study. Dependent Variable Patient satisfaction was the primary outcome of this study. This was measured using the “likelihood of recommending this ED to others” survey question. Responses were scaled from 1-5, with 1 = very poor and 5 = very good. Responses were dichotomized into 1-4 and 5 categories. No direct comparison of characteristics of the two treatment groups was discussed. Those participants who reported a follow-up phone call from an ED staff member were significantly more likely to recommend this ED to others compared to those that did not receive a follow-up phone call (71% vs. 51%, p<0.001). 3
Study PICO(T):

For ER patients of two different emergency rooms, does a follow-up phone call by an ED staff member in addition to standard discharge instructions, compared to standard discharge instructions with no follow-up phone call, impact patient satisfaction ratings of the ER?

Citation:

Wong, F. K., Chow, S., Chang, K., Lee, A., & Liu, J. (2004). Effects of nurse follow-up on emergency room revisits: a randomized controlled trial. Social Science & Medicine, 59(11), 2207-2218. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.03.028

Study objective/ intervention or exposures compared Design Sample (N) Intervention Outcomes studied (how measured) Results Level
To assess the impact of follow-up phone calls by a nurse on ER patients post discharge at an urban acute care hospital on health outcomes and utilization of healthcare providers (e.g., ER, general practitioner). Randomized control trial (RCT) Patients were selected on a sample of days through an entire year, and across all hours of the day. Participants were randomly assigned to the control or intervention group using a computer generated algorithm. Eligible participants: 900 20 were excluded due to language barrier or unwilling Accepted: 880 patients Control group: 440 enrolled, 40 were unable to be followed up with; 400 patients completed study Intervention group: 440 selected, 45 quit early or were unable to be followed up with; 395 patients completed study Control group: standard discharge instructions prior to discharge, with no follow-up phone calls Intervention group: standard discharge instructions plus nurse follow-up phone calls: •1st call 1-2 days post discharge •2nd call 4-5 days post discharge Both dependent variables were assessed via a follow-up phone-based interview 30-days post discharge, using validated questions – both quantitative and open-ended Dependent Variables Health outcome

• affecting daily life

• improvement of conditions

• self-reported health

•consumer satisfaction) Health care utilization

Number of times visiting

• general practitioner

• general outpatient clinic

• ER)

Control and intervention group were not statistically different on demographic characteristics (p>0.05). Intervention group was more likely to report a general “improvement of condition” compared to control group (97% vs. 93%; p=0.026) Intervention group was more likely to report a revisit to the ER within 30-days post discharge compared to control group (30% vs. 24%; p=0.036) 2
Study PICO(T):

For adult patients discharged from the emergency room, does the implementation of two nurse delivered follow-up phone calls post discharge along with standard discharge instructions, compared to standard instructions alone, impact health outcomes and utilization of health care services within 30-days post discharge?

Appendix 2:

PRISMA Search Flow DIagram

Records identified through CINAHL database

(n=94) Biese, K., LaMantia, M., Shofer, M., McCall, B., Roberts, E., Stearns, S. C., Principe, S., Kizer, J. S., Cairns, C. B., & Busby-Whitehead, J. (2014). A randomized trial exploring the effect of a telephone call follow-up on care plan compliance among older adults discharged home from the emergency department. Academic Emergency Medicine, 21(2), 188-195. doi:10.1111/acem.12308

 

Records identified through PubMed database

(n=306)

 

Records identified through manual searching

(n=2)

 

Records after duplicates removed�(n=341)

 

Records included in title screening�(n=341)

 

Full-text articles assessed for eligibility�(n=21)

 

Studies included in synthesis �(n=6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Records excluded �(n=320)

Non-emergency department population (208)

Emergency department-related, but non-related intervention (e.g., telephone was used during research methods) (95)

Emergency department-related, but very specific patient population (12)

Qualitative or exploratory in nature (5)

 

Full-text articles excluded, with reasons�(n=15)

Study was for narrow and specific population (7)

Study was exploratory in nature, without control and intervention (3)

Study included a non-telephone intervention (e.g., text, e-mail) (2)

Study was not in an emergency department (1)

Intervention was pharmacist only (1)

Study was a repeat of another (included) study (1)

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