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SUPPORT COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND SOCIAL INCLUSION

CHCDIS003

SUPPORT COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND SOCIAL INCLUSION

 

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LEARNER RESOURCE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S

TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2

UNIT INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5

ABOUT THIS RESOURCE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 ABOUT ASSESSMENT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6

ELEMENTS AND PERFORMANCE CRITERIA …………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

EVIDENCE REQUIREMENTS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10

KNOWLEDGE EVIDENCE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10 PERFORMANCE EVIDENCE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10

ASSESSMENT CONDITIONS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11

PRE-REQUISITES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11

TOPIC 1 – IDENTIFY OPPORTUNITIES FOR COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND SOCIAL INCLUSION ……………. 12

ASSIST IN IDENTIFYING INTERESTS, ABILITIES, PREFERENCES AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE PERSON WITH

DISABILITY TO ENGAGE WITH A SOCIAL NETWORK ……………………………………………………………………………. 12

DEFINITION OF DISABILITY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12 TYPES OF DISABILITIES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12 ACTIVITIES FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13 DISABILITY SUPPORTS AND REQUIREMENTS …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16

PROVIDE INFORMATION ON COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION OPTIONS, NETWORKS AND SERVICES TO MEET

THE NEEDS, WANTS AND PREFERENCES OF THE PERSON WITH DISABILITY …………………………………………… 17

ACCOMMODATION SUPPORT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17 People with a disability ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17

ACCESS CITY HOTLINE [ACT] …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17 BETTER START FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITY ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 18 CARERS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18 HEALTH CARE AND INFORMATION SERVICES ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18 DISABILITY EMPLOYMENT SERVICES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18 DISABILITY PARKING SCHEME ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18 DISABILITY RIGHTS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19 INTERNATIONAL DAY OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITY …………………………………………………………………………………………. 19 JOBACCESS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19 LIVEWIRE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19 NATIONAL AUSLAN BOOKING AND PAYMENT SERVICE (NABS) ………………………………………………………………………….. 19 NATIONAL COMPANION CARD ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20 NATIONAL DISABILITY INSURANCE SCHEME (NDIS) ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 20 NATIONAL PUBLIC TOILET MAP ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20 NATIONAL RELAY SERVICE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20 NATIONAL RESPITE FOR CARERS PROGRAM ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20 YOUNG CARERS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21

IDENTIFY AND ACCESS APPROPRIATE COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION RESOURCES, PROGRAMS, AGENCIES,

TRANSPORT SERVICES, AIDS AND EQUIPMENT ACCORDING TO THE PERSON’S PREFERENCES AND NEEDS … 22

SPECIALISED TRANSPORT AND TRAVEL……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22 Assisted School Travel Program …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22 Transport for Disability Action Plan ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 22 Accessibility of stations ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23

 

 

 

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TAXI SERVICES – WHEELCHAIR ACCESSIBLE TAXIS (WATS) ………………………………………………………………………………… 23 Disability Parking Scheme …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23

MOBILITY AIDS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23 Community Aids and Equipment Program …………………………………………………………………………………….. 24 Program in Focus ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24

COMMUNICATION AIDS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24 Speech Pathologist …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24 Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) …………………………………………………………………….. 25 Telecommunication Services ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25 Advocacy Groups ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25

PERSONNEL ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25 Disability Employment Services ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26 Information Service ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26

RECOGNISE AND ACCOMMODATE THE CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS NEEDS OF THE PERSON WITH DISABILITY

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27

CULTURAL BARRIERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28 STRATEGIES TO ADDRESS CULTURAL BARRIERS……………………………………………………………………………………………… 28

TOPIC 2 – IMPLEMENT STRATEGIES FOR COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND INCLUSION ACCORDING TO THE

INDIVIDUALISED PLAN ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30

ASSIST THE PERSON TO IDENTIFY AND ACCESS COMMUNITY OPTIONS THAT WILL MEET NEEDS IDENTIFIED IN

THEIR INDIVIDUALISED PLAN …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30

TYPES OF SERVICE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31

SUPPORT THE PERSON TO ACCESS OPPORTUNITIES TO ESTABLISH CONNECTIONS THROUGH SHARED

INTERESTS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 32

ONE-TO-ONE CONNECTIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32

SEEK FEEDBACK FROM THE PERSON WITH DISABILITY, FAMILY AND/OR CARERS AND/OR RELEVANT OTHERS

AND/OR COLLEAGUES AND/OR SUPERVISOR TO ENSURE THAT THE SUPPORT CONTINUES TO MEET THE

CURRENT AND CHANGING NEEDS AND PREFERENCES OF THE PERSON ………………………………………………… 34

ENSURE STRATEGIES FOR COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND SOCIAL INCLUSION ARE REGULARLY REVIEWED

WITH THE PERSON AND SUPERVISOR TO ENABLE POSITIVE OUTCOMES ………………………………………………. 36

IMPLEMENTING THE INDIVIDUALISED PLAN …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36 TRAINING AND SUPERVISION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36

MONITOR LEVEL OF ENGAGEMENT IN CONSULTATION WITH SUPERVISOR …………………………………………… 38

REPORTING ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39

TOPIC 3 – IDENTIFY, ADDRESS AND MONITOR BARRIERS TO COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND SOCIAL

INCLUSION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42

RECOGNISE PHYSICAL, SKILL AND OTHER BARRIERS TO COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND SOCIAL INCLUSION

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42

INDIVIDUALISED SUPPORT PLAN ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42 OVERCOMING BARRIERS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 43

COLLABORATE WITH THE PERSON WITH DISABILITY TO IDENTIFY SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME BARRIERS, IN

CONSULTATION WITH SUPERVISOR ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44

SUPPORT THE PERSON TO IMPLEMENT STRATEGIES TO ADDRESS BARRIERS TO COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION

ACCORDING TO THEIR INDIVIDUALISED PLAN AND MONITOR THE SUCCESS OF STRATEGIES TO ADDRESS

BARRIERS IN CONSULTATION WITH THE PERSON AND SUPERVISOR ……………………………………………………. 46

RECOGNISE OWN LIMITATIONS IN ADDRESSING ISSUES AND SEEK ADVICE WHEN NECESSARY ………………… 49

 

 

 

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DELEGATION, REFERRAL AND HANDOVER ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49 ETHICAL STANDARDS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 49

SUMMARY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 51

REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 52

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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U N I T I N T R O D U C T I O N

This resource covers the unit CHCDIS003 – Support community participation and social inclusion.

 

This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to assist with supporting people with disability in community participation and social inclusion using a person-centred approach. This involves enabling people to make choices to maximise their participation in various community settings, functions and activities to enhance psychosocial well- being and lifestyle in accordance with the person’s needs and preferences.

 

This unit applies to workers in varied disability services contexts. Work performed requires some discretion and judgement and may be carried out under regular direct or indirect supervision.

 

The skills in this unit must be applied in accordance with Commonwealth and State/Territory legislation, Australian / New Zealand standards and industry codes of practice.

 

ABOUT THIS RESOURCE

This resource brings together information to develop your knowledge about this unit. The information is designed to reflect the requirements of the unit and uses headings to makes it easier to follow.

 

Read through this resource to develop your knowledge in preparation for your assessment. You will be required to complete the assessment tools that are included in your program. At the back of the resource are a list of references you may find useful to review.

 

As a student it is important to extend your learning and to search out text books, internet sites, talk to people at work and read newspaper articles and journals which can provide additional learning material.

 

Your trainer may include additional information and provide activities. Slide presentations and assessments in class to support your learning.

 

 

 

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ABOUT ASSESSMENT

Throughout your training we are committed to your learning by providing a training and assessment framework that ensures the knowledge gained through training is translated into practical on the job improvements.

 

You are going to be assessed for:

 Your skills and knowledge using written and observation activities that apply

to your workplace.

 Your ability to apply your learning.

 Your ability to recognise common principles and actively use these on the job.

 

You will receive an overall result of Competent or Not Yet Competent for the assessment of this unit. The assessment is a competency based assessment, which has no pass or fail. You are either competent or not yet competent. Not Yet Competent means that you still are in the process of understanding and acquiring the skills and knowledge required to be marked competent. The assessment process is made up of a number of assessment methods. You are required to achieve a satisfactory result in each of these to be deemed competent overall.

 

All of your assessment and training is provided as a positive learning tool. Your assessor will guide your learning and provide feedback on your responses to the assessment. For valid and reliable assessment of this unit, a range of assessment methods will be used to assess practical skills and knowledge.

 

Your assessment may be conducted through a combination of the following methods:

 Written Activity

 Case Study

 Observation

 Questions

 Third Party Report

 

The assessment tool for this unit should be completed within the specified time period following the delivery of the unit. If you feel you are not yet ready for assessment, discuss this with your trainer and assessor.

 

 

 

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To be successful in this unit you will need to relate your learning to your workplace. You may be required to demonstrate your skills and be observed by your assessor in your workplace environment. Some units provide for a simulated work environment and your trainer and assessor will outline the requirements in these instances.

 

 

 

 

 

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E L E M E N T S A N D P E R F O R M A NC E C R I T E R I A

1. Identify opportunities for community participation and social inclusion

1.1 Assist in identifying interests, abilities, preferences and requirements of the person with disability to engage with a social network

1.2 Provide information on community participation options, networks and services to meet the needs, wants and preferences of the person with disability

1. 3 Identify and access appropriate community participation resources, programs, agencies, transport services, aids and equipment according to the person’s preferences and needs

1.4 Recognise and accommodate the cultural and religious needs of the person with disability

2. Implement strategies for community participation and inclusion according to the individualised plan

2.1 Assist the person to identify and access community options that will meet needs identified in their individualised plan

2.2 Support the person to access opportunities to establish connections through shared interests

2.3 Seek feedback from the person with disability, family and/or carers and/or relevant others and/or colleagues and/or supervisor to ensure that the support continues to meet the current and changing needs and preferences of the person

2.4 Ensure strategies for community participation and social inclusion are regularly reviewed with the person and supervisor to enable positive outcomes

2.5 Monitor level of engagement in consultation with supervisor

3. Identify, address and monitor barriers to community participation and social inclusion

3.1 Recognise physical, skill and other barriers to community participation and social inclusion

3.2 Collaborate with the person with disability to identify solutions to overcome barriers, in consultation with supervisor

 

 

 

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3.3 Support the person to implement strategies to address barriers to community participation according to their individualised plan

3.4 Monitor the success of strategies to address barriers in consultation with the person and supervisor

3.5 Recognise own limitations in addressing issues and seek advice when necessary

 

 

 

 

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E V I D E N C E R E Q U I R E M E N T S

This describes the essential requirements and their level required for this unit.

 

KNOWLEDGE EVIDENCE

The candidate must be able to demonstrate essential knowledge required to effectively complete tasks outlined in elements and performance criteria of this unit, manage tasks and manage contingencies in the context of the work role. This includes knowledge of:

 Rights and responsibilities of people with disability

 Principles of:

o strengths-based practice

o person-centred practice

o community inclusion and best practice examples

 Strategies for strengthening options, networks and services for people with

disability

 Local agencies and services, and resources to obtain community information

about sporting, cultural and specific-interest groups

 Active citizenship and what this means for people with a disability

 Role of carers and/or families and/or relevant others

 

PERFORMANCE EVIDENCE

The candidate must show evidence of the ability to complete tasks outlined in elements and performance criteria of this unit, manage tasks and manage contingencies in the context of the job role. There must be evidence that the candidate has:

 Supported at least 1 person with disability, by working with them to identify

skills and interests and find matching options within the broader community

 

 

 

 

 

 

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A S S E S S M E N T C O N D I T I O N S

Skills must have been demonstrated in the workplace or in a simulated environment that reflects workplace conditions. The following conditions must be met for this unit:

 Use of suitable facilities, equipment and resources:

o individualised plans and any relevant equipment outlined in the plan

o access to details of appropriate and local resources, programs,

agencies, transport services, aids and equipment

 

Assessors must satisfy the Standards for Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) 2015/AQTF mandatory competency requirements for assessors.

 

P R E – R E Q U I S I T E S

This unit must be assessed after the following pre-requisite unit:

There are no pre-requisites for this unit.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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T O P I C 1 – I D E N T I F Y O P P O R T U N I T I E S F O R C O M M U N I T Y P A R T I C I P A T I O N

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ASSIST IN IDENTIFYING INTERESTS, ABILITIES, PREFERENCES AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE PERSON WITH DISABILITY TO

ENGAGE WITH A SOCIAL NETWORK

DEFINITION OF DISABILITY

Disability can be defined in many ways, depending on the perspective, how the information will be used and where it will be used for.

 

In Australia, many data collections use the definition of disability specified by the World Health Organization (WHO). As per WHO, disability is like an umbrella term for any or all of the following components:

 Impairments—problems in body function or structure

 Activity limitations—difficulties in executing activities

 Participation restrictions—problems an individual may experience in

involvement in life situations.1

 

TYPES OF DISABILITIES

Disabilities affect people in different ways and at different levels. Two individuals may have the same disability but the effects on their lives may be entirely different. Disabilities occur at any stage of a person’s life. It is important to know the different types of disabilities in order to handle and manage the disability appropriately and sufficiently.

 

The types of disabilities people face range from physical to mental impairments. But the one thing that is common to all types of disabilities, which is important to acknowledge, is their ability to interfere with one’s capability to perform day to day activities.

 

 

1http://www.aihw.gov.au/disability/technical-definitions-of-disability/ (accessed 30 March 2015).

 

 

 

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The following are the different types of disabilities:

 Mobility and Physical Impairments

 Spinal Cord Disability

 Brain Disability (Head Injuries)

 Vision Disability

 Hearing Disability

 Cognitive or Learning Disabilities

 Psychological Disorders

 Invisible Disabilities

 

ACTIVITIES FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES

Activities that are conducive to the well-being of an individual should be promoted and made accessible to people with disabilities. Engaging in worthwhile activities has numerous benefits such as better health, improved disposition and broader social network. There are many activities that can help people with disabilities to socialize, express their feelings, show their talents and stay healthier. To get the best results from the activities for the disabled, it is highly recommended that the activities are based on the individual’s skills, interests, physical abilities, level of socialization and therapeutic benefits.

 

When people with disabilities are engaged and active, they tend to focus on their capabilities rather than their limitations. They gain more self-confidence and improve their self-esteem. The activities which people with disabilities can participate in are as follows:

 Art Therapy – Art therapy is a very good way to encourage people with

disabilities to respond. Art provides a way for individuals to express thoughts

and feelings, especially when there are constraints that limit them to write or

speak. Art also encourages individuals to develop their creativity. It can also

be used to entertain and enrich them. Painting, coloring books, scrapbooking,

jewelry making and other crafting activities are just some of the art activities

that disabled people can enjoy.

 Music Therapy – Music is another effective tool that can elicit reactions or

participation from people with disabilities. Activities can be as simple as

singing, humming or having everyone clap their hands and tap their feet

 

 

 

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along with the music. Playing percussion instruments is another popular

music activity that allows individuals to feel the rhythm and vibrations these

instruments create.2 According to the American Music Therapy Association,

music stimulates the senses, and, therefore, can help to improve an

individual’s mental, social and emotional well-being.3

 

 Physical Activity – Exercise and physical activities benefit people with

disabilities physically and mentally. To avoid leading a sedentary life, which

exposes individuals to the risk of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease,

obesity and high blood pressure even, it is important to incorporate physical

activities into their lifestyle. Physical activities may include swimming,

dancing, yoga, gym exercises and other aerobic activities.

o Paralympics, Special Olympics and Deaflympics – Special Olympics and

Paralympics are two separate organizations recognized by the

International Olympic Committee (IOC). They are similar in that they

both focus on sport for athletes with a disability and are run by

international non-profit organizations.4 Paralympics is an

international competition that involves six disability groups: cerebral

palsy, spinal cord injuries, amputee, intellectual disability, visual

impairment and Les Autres. Les Autres is the group that includes those

who do not fall into the other groups mentioned. Special Olympics

involve competition opportunities and training all year round, and it

deals with all levels of intellectual disabilities. Deaflympics involves

competition for deaf athletes or those with hearing impairments.

 Nature Activities – Nature activities encourage people with disabilities to be

out in an open space, breathe some fresh air and appreciate their natural

surroundings. Scavenger hunts and summer camps are examples of nature

activities that allow them to exercise their visual and tactile abilities. Outdoor

recreational activities such as swimming, boating, fishing, hiking, exploring

 

2 Amber Keefer, 2015. “Activities for Adults With Developmental Disabilities”.(accessed 30 March 2015), <http://www.livestrong.com>. 3 Ibid. 4 http://media.specialolympics.org/soi/files/press-kit/What’s%20the%20difference%20SO%20and%20Paralympics.pdf (accessed 30 March 2015).

 

 

 

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nature and joining outdoor team sports allow them to socialize and enhance

their people skills. Being outside and being part of the group enable them to

share about themselves, learn from the experiences of others, and they also

learn to be a team player.

 Job Placements – With workforce diversity being implemented by most

organisations and with the mandate of Equal Employment Opportunity Act,

people with disabilities should have access to employment opportunities.

People with disabilities need to be assisted and informed by providing them a

clear idea of the type of job they want to pursue and by helping them assess

the kind of work environment that would best fit them. People with

disabilities may also use their personal and professional networks and online

job search sites to help them with their job search.

 

The kind of support and assistance given to job seekers with disabilities differ in such a way that some of the steps are more detailed, deliberate and intensive. There are factors to be considered specific to their conditions such as disclosure of disability to employers.

 

When considering individuals with disabilities for employment, recruiters should follow the principle of “job matching”: finding a job environment and description that suit the current interests, support needs, personality, and skills of the individual with a disability.5

 

The emphasis on job matching does not replace the fact that further education and trainings are still needed to attain work goals. People with disabilities, like others, may need to attend trainings, seminars or workshops to improve their skills and help them perform better in their work.

 

These are some samples of job choices people with disabilities may want to consider:

 Government or government-subsidized jobs

 Call Center Staff

 Work-at-Home jobs

 Computer or Information Technology (IT) careers

 

5 http://www.communityinclusion.org/onestop/section7.pdf (accessed 30 March 2015).

 

 

 

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 Legal or Clerical jobs

 Business Owner/Entrepreneur

DISABILITY SUPPORTS AND REQUIREMENTS

There are various goods and services that can help a person overcome the challenges that come with having a disability. These challenges limit them from fulfilling independent living, as well as participating in daily, cultural, political, social and economic activities.

 

Below are examples of supports that can address the requirements of people with disability6:

 Personal help/attendant care

 Personal planning supports

 Homemaker services

 Brokerage services

 Technical aids and devices

 Respite and training for family caregivers

 Specialized features at home and in work and learning environments

 Medications, developmental/therapeutic services

 Transportation supports specific to a disability

 Accessible community infrastructure

 Human capacity at the community level to include people with disabilities.

 

Supports are required of different kinds and in different forms, at all stages of the lifespan: children, youth, adults and seniors.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

6 http://www.inclusionbc.org/our-priority-areas/disability-supports/what-are-disability-supports (accessed 31 March 2015). 7 Ibid.

 

 

 

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PROVIDE INFORMATION ON COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION OPTIONS, NETWORKS AND SERVICES TO MEET THE NEEDS,

WANTS AND PREFERENCES OF THE PERSON WITH DISABILITY

Many disability supports are specialised goods and services and are designed to assist people depending on their specific needs. They are also considered supplemental to other general community supports, including from both the public and private sectors.

 

Below are different government information for people with disabilities, covering a range of topics, issues and resources such as care, health, payments, support services and employment.

 

ACCOMMODATION SUPPORT

Accommodation support helps people with disability live in the community and in a home environment. This may also include personal care, attendant care and provision of technical aids and devices. For more information, visit National Information Communication Awareness Network (Nican) (http://nican.com.au)

 

PEOPLE WITH A DISABILITY

People with disabilities are entitled to services and payments, and these are extended to their families or carers. Organisations that provide people with disabilities often receive support through funding and grants. For more information, visit Department of Human Services (http://www.humanservices.gov.au).

 

ACCESS CITY HOTLINE [ACT]

People with disabilities who have difficulties using doors or stairways, roadways, getting into buildings, kerbed areas, footpaths or even understanding some signs and directions can contact Access City Hotline – 02 6257 3077. For more information, visit Citizens Advice Bureau [ACT] (http://www.contactcanberra.org.au).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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BETTER START FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITY

This initiative aims to provide children with developmental disabilities access to funding to be able to get early intervention services. This can make their situation better and give them a fair chance in life. For more information, visit Department of Social Services (https://www.dss.gov.au).

CARERS

Carers are very important in the lives of people with disabilities. This is due to the fact that they are the ones who offer direct care and support to them. There are payments available to carers who provide this kind of care full-time to other people. There are programs and services in place to facilitate this. For more information, visit Department of Human Services (http://www.humanservices.gov.au).

 

HEALTH CARE AND INFORMATION SERVICES

Different health organizations provide disability support services. These services may include consultation, treatments and information dissemination. Healthdirect is a resource center that provides links to some of Australia’s most reputable health organizations and experts. For more information, visit Healthdirect (http://www.healthdirect.gov.au).

 

DISABILITY EMPLOYMENT SERVICES

Specialised help is provided for people with disabilities to enable them get and keep a job. For more information, visit Department of Human Services (http://www.humanservices.gov.au).

 

DISABILITY PARKING SCHEME

Eligible people can enjoy the benefits of parking very close to their destinations. In order to enjoy this, individuals have to apply to have the Australian Disability Parking Permit. For more information, visit Department of Social Services (https://www.dss.gov.au).

 

 

 

 

 

 

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DISABILITY RIGHTS

Different resources and links to disability discrimination and the rights of people with disabilities are available and easily accessible. For more information, visit Australian Human Rights Commission (https://www.humanrights.gov.au).

 

INTERNATIONAL DAY OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITY

Awareness programs about people with disabilities are created to educate the public and encourage support from them. An example of this kind of initiative, there is International Day of People with Disability. This day is important in helping people understand those with disabilities and encourage people to support their rights, dignity and well-being. For more information, visit National Information Communication Awareness Network (http://www.australia.gov.au/directories/australia/nican).

 

JOBACCESS

The Department of Employment provides practical workplace solutions to help those with disabilities and also their employers. This is done by providing free advice service and telephone information. For more information, visit Department of Employment (https://employment.gov.au).

 

LIVEWIRE

This is a community designed to help young people who are living with chronic illnesses or disabilities. It is safe and fun and accommodates the parents and siblings of the people with disabilities. They are able to share their experiences, and this forum is found online. For more information, visit Starlight Children’s Foundation (https://www.starlight.org.au).

 

NATIONAL AUSLAN BOOKING AND PAYMENT SERVICE (NABS)

NABS provides those with hearing impairments with interpreters. Those who use sign language need an interpreter to be able to communicate with other people who do not understand sign language. For example, if they have private medical appointments then they must be able to communicate with the health professionals in order to get the service they want yet the health professionals may not understand what they are saying. For more information, visit Department of Social Services (https://www.dss.gov.au).

 

 

 

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NATIONAL COMPANION CARD

People with disabilities should be able to participate in activities and events without having to pay another ticket for their companion. The Department of Social Services is in charge of making this happen by providing the national companion card. For more information, visit Department of Social Services (https://www.dss.gov.au).

 

NATIONAL DISABILITY INSURANCE SCHEME (NDIS)

NDIS offers individualised support and community linking to people with permanent or severe disabilities, and this is extended to their families and carers too. For more information, visit National Disability Insurance Agency (http://www.ndis.gov.au)

 

NATIONAL PUBLIC TOILET MAP

National Public Toilet Map is available to provide information on more than 16,000 public toilets in Australia. This includes their opening and closing hours, accessibility and other facilities like baby change and showers. For more information, visit Department of Social Services (https://www.dss.gov.au).

 

NATIONAL RELAY SERVICE

This is a telephone service that is available for those with hearing or speech impairment. This is also used to call someone with the said challenges. This goes a long way towards making their lives smooth. For more information, visit Telecommunications Universal Service Management Agency (http://www.tusma.gov.au).

 

NATIONAL RESPITE FOR CARERS PROGRAM

Carers need extra help sometimes, and this program provides that help. It helps for a carer to take a short break from caring for their loved one and rejuvenate themselves before resuming. For more information, visit Department of Social Services (https://www.dss.gov.au).

 

 

 

 

 

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YOUNG CARERS

They fall under the Department of Social Services and offer contacts, support and tips for the children and young people who care for those with disabilities from their homes. For more information, visit Department of Social Services (https://www.dss.gov.au).

 

 

 

 

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IDENTIFY AND ACCESS APPROPRIATE COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION RESOURCES, PROGRAMS, AGENCIES,

TRANSPORT SERVICES, AIDS AND EQUIPMENT ACCORDING TO THE PERSON’S PREFERENCES AND NEEDS

The different states and territories of Australia have programs, services, initiatives and action plans to assist people with disabilities. More detailed information can be found on their main government websites.

 

Below are examples of different types of supports and resources to guide individuals with disabilities, their families and carers.

 

SPECIALISED TRANSPORT AND TRAVEL

People with disability who are unable to travel to and from their destinations should be provided transport assistance. There are several programs that address this need, and there are some that are more specific depending on the profile of the individual, for example, students with disability or adults with mobility issues.

 

ASSISTED SCHOOL TRAVEL PROGRAM

The Department of Education and Communities’ Assisted School Travel Program (ASTP) is on its mission to provide free specialised transport to and from school to eligible students with a disability.

 

All applications for assisted school travel are assessed based on the program’s eligibility criteria and on the specific travel support needs of students.

 

TRANSPORT FOR DISABILITY ACTION PLAN

The Disability Action Plan contains action plans that intend to improve the facilities and features of transportation for people with disabilities. It includes, but not limited to, the following:

 

 

 

 

 

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ACCESSIBILITY OF STATIONS

‘Easy Access’ wheelchair accessible stations,

 Electronic indicators

 Tactile indicators

 Audio and visual information

 Hearing augmentation at ticket offices

Accessibility of trains

 Dedicated wheelchair spaces

 Priority seats for elderly and less mobile passengers

 Accessible emergency help points

 Audio and visual destination information

 Colour contrasted doors and handrails

 

TAXI SERVICES – WHEELCHAIR ACCESSIBLE TAXIS (WATS)

DISABILITY PARKING SCHEME

The Australian Disability Parking Scheme helps eligible individuals park nearer to their destination. There is an application process, eligibility criteria and national minimum standards for disability parking concessions.

 

MOBILITY AIDS

People with a disability are encouraged to fulfill the goal of independent living by providing mobility aids, tools and equipment that they can use in their own home. These aids will also allow them to participate in the community and to do their job in a regular working environment.

 

 

 

 

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COMMUNITY AIDS AND EQUIPMENT PROGRAM

This program provides a fair and accessible provision of aids, equipment and home modifications to assist people disabilities living at home in the community. This aims to improve the activities, independence and safety of the person with a disability and compensate the carers.

 

PROGRAM IN FOCUS

The Victorian Aids and Equipment Program (A&EP) provides people with a permanent or long-term disability with subsidised aids, equipment, home, and vehicle modifications.

Ballarat Health Services Statewide equipment program (SWEP) administers the A&EP for items such as mobility aids, including wheelchairs and scooters, hoists, beds, commodes, continence aids, domiciliary oxygen, home modifications and vehicle modifications.

Yooralla administers the Electronic Communications Devices Scheme (ECDS), which assists individuals to communicate with speech generating devices and software.8

 

COMMUNICATION AIDS

Communication is a primary necessity for everybody. It is through communication that people exchange ideas, express their feelings, build relationships and achieve goals.

 

People with disability should have access to communication whether they are the initiator or the receiver. Different forms of communication assistance are available through the following:

 

SPEECH PATHOLOGIST

It is also known as a speech therapist, is a professionally trained expert that gives recommendations and assessments, and works with people who have complex communication needs. QFinder and Speech Pathology Australia are online resources that can help people find a speech pathologist.

 

8 http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/for-individuals/disability/aids-and-equipment (accessed 31 March 2015).

 

 

 

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AUGMENTATIVE AND ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION (AAC)

It is the term used for all communication that is not speech but is used to enhance or replace speech. For example gestures, eye pointing, body language, pointing to symbols, signing and spelling.9

 

Lifetec is an organisation that can provide information and advice about high-tech communication aids and equipment.

 

TELECOMMUNICATION SERVICES

National Relay Service (NRS) is a 24/7 service provider that offers phone and internet- based solutions for people who are deaf or have a speech or hearing impairment.

 

Telecommunications and Disability Consumer Representation (TEDICORE) promotes equity and accessibility in telecommunications for people with a disability.10

ADVOCACY GROUPS

Communication Rights Australia is a human rights and advocacy service for people with little or no speech.11

AGOSCI is an Australian group representing people with complex communication needs and those who live and work with them.12

PERSONNEL

Employment assistance for people with disabilities should be available in compliance with the law. People with disabilities should be considered for based on the skills and competencies they can offer. There are services and resources that can help job seekers with disabilities such as:

 

 

 

9 https://www.qld.gov.au/disability/adults/help-communicating/ (accessed 31 March 2015). 10 Ibid. 11 Ibid. 12 Ibid.

 

 

 

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DISABILITY EMPLOYMENT SERVICES

These are services that provide expert help for people with disabilities, an injury or a health condition to search and retain a job. Essential Personnel is an example service provider.

 

INFORMATION SERVICE

This type of service provides free information and advice service that can assist people with disabilities and their employers. JobAccess is an example information service provider that offers workplace solutions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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RECOGNISE AND ACCOMMODATE THE CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS NEEDS OF THE PERSON WITH DISABILITY

Beliefs and culture are considered important and personal. Values are formed early on in the lives of people and culture and behavior to situations can differ significantly from one society to another.

 

Understanding the reasons for individuality and culture is very important to cultivate a positive environment for everyone. Here are some ideas on how to recognise and accommodate diversity:

 Be respectful of cultural practices, attitudes and beliefs such as removing

shoes before entering a home

 Empathise – think of the needs of others from their point of view.

 Be polite – use the preferred title and the appropriate tone of voice, listen to

others address each other.

 Show sincere interest.

 Respect a person’s right to privacy and confidentiality.13

 

 

When addressing a person from another culture, you may need to consider:

 Different ways of speaking or titles that may be preferred

 Male and female roles clearly defined along cultural boundaries

 Different speech patterns/language

 Codes of behaviour

 Clothing

 Gender-specific tasks to complete

 Non-verbal communication and body language such as eye contact

 Use of physical space14

 

 

 

13 http://etraining.communitydoor.org.au/mod/page/view.php?id=178 (accessed 31 March 2015). 14 Ibid.

 

 

 

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CULTURAL BARRIERS

Cultural barriers may include:15

 Language and communication, including low English proficiency

 Cultural norms, understanding of and attitudes towards illness, disability and

ageing across the community that are different from service principles and

provision

 Issues relating to ageing and disability exacerbated by factors such as

ethnicity, religion, language and migration and settlement experiences

 Different perceptions of the ‘carers’ role

 Impact of pre and post migration and settlement

 Experience on a person/family

 Prejudice and feelings of inadequacy for needing help

 Reluctance to deal with government agencies due to negative experiences of

war, conflict, trauma and state-sanctioned persecution in their country of

origin.

 

STRATEGIES TO ADDRESS CULTURAL BARRIERS

Core values are a very good foundation for building the principles that will facilitate in forming strategies to reduce and eliminate cultural barriers. Core values may include:

 Equity

 Focus

 Integrity

 High performance

 Value creation

 Respect for people

 

Following these principles will result in a harmonious culturally diverse environment:16

 Integration – cultural and linguistic considerations are integrated into all

aspects of planning, policy and service delivery.

 

15 https://www.adhc.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/file/0019/234307/848_ADHC_CALD_Framework_020412_web.pdf (accessed 31 March 2015). 16 Ibid.

 

 

 

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 Valuing cultural diversity – the cultural, linguistic and religious diversity is

recognised as a valuable asset to the community.

 Sharing responsibility – the commitment to cultural competency should be

sector-wide.

 Mutual learning and respect – all staff, communities and services

acknowledge that learning is a two-way process and is based on mutual

respect.

 Strengths-based – the strengths of individuals, families and carers, staff,

services and communities are recognised and built upon.

 Accountability – every individual should be accountable for the cultural

responsiveness and accessibility of the services and programs.

 

 

 

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T O P I C 2 – I M P L E M E N T S T R A T E G I E S F O R C O M M U N I T Y P A R T I C I P A T I O N

A N D I N C L U S I O N A CC O R D I N G T O T H E I N D I V I D U A L I S E D P L A N

ASSIST THE PERSON TO IDENTIFY AND ACCESS COMMUNITY OPTIONS THAT WILL MEET NEEDS IDENTIFIED IN THEIR

INDIVIDUALISED PLAN

Included in the client’s individual plan is the method in which a client can have access to community options to meet their needs. A support worker should help the client in identifying these options. It is part of the support worker’s responsibilities to complete or implement a community access plan. This plan should list the different choices available to clients based, considering their requirements and interests.

 

The following are some examples of programs and activities prepared for the clients based on their needs and preferences:

 

Description of need/requirement:

 Need to engage in physical fitness that requires cardiovascular activity and be

involved in a group activity with the same condition and capacity, in a facility

designed to accommodate mobility challenges

 

Type of service:

 Community-based exercise program – Example: A community recreation

centre has a swimming pool designed for people with mobility issues.

Swimming pools have special features like a sloped entrance into the water

that allows individuals to wheel or walk into the pool with or without help.

 Description of need/requirement: Need to attend art and craft based activities

and experiences that can accommodate a client that needs to develop both

artistic and motor skills

 

 

 

 

 

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TYPES OF SERVICE

Specialised service provider that offers creative programs, workshops or special education

 Example: Arts Project Australia provides education and training in visual arts

and studio workshop.

 Description of need/requirement: Need to attend horticultural therapy

 

Specific horticultural therapy service provider

 Example: Cultivate NSW offers Horticultural Therapy, which includes

techniques and processes to promote the physical, mental and social health of

participants.

 Description of need/requirement: Need equipment to prepare and train for a

sports event with low budget consideration

 

Equipment rental program

 Example: Wheelchair Sports Alberta rents and loans racing and sports chairs,

rollers, and sports equipment for a small fee.

 

An individual client can have more than one service, or activity provided that the services or activities selected are appropriate and suit the requirements of the client. It is essential to provide options and information to the clients so that they will be empowered to make their own choices.

 

Another important factor to consider is the overall condition of the client. Some clients may have more than one disability, also known as dual or multiple disabilities. The type of service or activity should be formed around their disabling conditions and not solely on the primary disability. Identify the services and activities that can specifically accommodate the complex care needs of the client.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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SUPPORT THE PERSON TO ACCESS OPPORTUNITIES TO ESTABLISH CONNECTIONS THROUGH SHARED INTERESTS

People with disabilities should be encouraged to join other groups, particularly those that have the same interests as theirs, to increase community membership and belonging. This will also allow them to foster relationships with other community members, building support systems for each other.

 

According to Angela Novak Amado, Ph.D., the following strategies were found useful to support relationships with community members. Some strategies will be more useful than others for any particular individual. They are all useful for brainstorming ideas.17

 

The strategies are classified into two different groups: one-to-one connections and relationships, and increasing community membership.18

 

ONE-TO-ONE CONNECTIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS

Identify who the person already knows and where the relationship can be strengthened and deepened

 People with disabilities (client) who receive services go to activities or events

in the community. Support workers or family members may have observed

the people or other community members who are already acquainted with

the client or are friendly to the client. Encourage the client to get to know

them better. Invite them to other activities or a get-together.

 

Identify who would appreciate this person’s gifts

 Gifts are the talents, skills and abilities that the person with a disability does

very well. Search for a venue or create an opportunity where the person can

show these skills and talents.

 

 

 

17 http://rtc.umn.edu/docs/Friends_Connecting_people_with_disabilities_and_community_members.pdf (accessed 1 April 2015). 18 Ibid.

 

 

 

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Identify where you can find an interested person

 Soliciting ideas from other support workers or family members is one way to

get leads on where you can find other people who may share the same

interests with the client.

 

 

Identify associations and clubs

 There are two categories of clubs and associations: formal and informal.

Identify the interests of the person with a disability and look for groups that

match the personality and interests of the client. The client will have the

chance to socialize, participate, contribute and be contributed to.

 

Identify community places where people engage in one of this person’s interests

 Identify all the places or look for events where a particular interest is

celebrated or promoted. Search for persons you can reach who can help you

connect with other like-minded individuals. This can pave the way for

possible job ideas.

 

Identify community places that are hospitable and welcoming

 There are local places, businesses, neighborhood groups and clubs that are

extra helpful to people with disabilities. They make sure that they make these

people comfortable. They show their support by letting these people be, but

they are very ready to provide assistance when needed. Encourage people

with disability to frequent this kind of places. They may build relationships

with the people there eventually.

 

Identify places where the person can fit in just the way they are

 There are individuals with disabilities who have what we call “challenging

behavior.” In this case, it is recommended not to “fix” or change the person.

Search for places that can accept them the way they are or places that do not

have issues with this type of condition and situation.

 

 

 

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SEEK FEEDBACK FROM THE PERSON WITH DISABILITY, FAMILY AND/OR CARERS AND/OR RELEVANT OTHERS AND/OR

COLLEAGUES AND/OR SUPERVISOR TO ENSURE THAT THE SUPPORT CONTINUES TO MEET THE CURRENT AND CHANGING

NEEDS AND PREFERENCES OF THE PERSON

It will be necessary to collect feedback from clients’, other carers and families on a regular basis as a standard organisational procedure on the adequacy of the service delivery that they have received. This information will then need to be used to revise and improve service delivery arrangements so that the needs of the client are continually met.

 

A range of different methods should be used to collect feedback on the adequacy of services provided; these methods must be systematic and be in line with organisational policy and procedure.

 

Feedback from clients and others can be collected using a series of different methods including:

 Discussions

 Focus Groups

 Surveys

 Direct Questioning

 Review documentation

 Feedback reports

 

There are two main types of feedback data that can be collected, and these are:

 Quantitative feedback: Collects data in the form of numbers. This means that aspects can be measured and expressed in numbers as percentages or ratios. Quantitative Research tells us ‘how many’, ‘how much’, ‘to what extent’ or ‘what size’ something is.

 Qualitative feedback: Collects exploratory data, it asks a variety of carefully planned questions that seek the underlying reasons, opinions and motivation behind different actions and situations.

 

 

 

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All the information will need to be compiled into workable sections and measured against the client’s goals and objectives in relation to client service. This information is critical in the design and creation of appropriate policies and actions plans that suit the clients and meets the purpose that they were designed for.

 

Successful analysis on the feedback that you have gathered will inform on different aspects of the client service delivery platforms and can assist in determining what about the services are offered and if they suit the client’s needs as intended.

 

It is also important that your target audience understands the purpose of the consultation and feedback process to ensure that information collected during the review is in a manageable and useful format.

 

It is essential that the results from the feedback collection are used to make positive change and ensure that the community services organisations are continuously improving the services that are supplied to clients in line with the feedback collected.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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ENSURE STRATEGIES FOR COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND SOCIAL INCLUSION ARE REGULARLY REVIEWED WITH THE

PERSON AND SUPERVISOR TO ENABLE POSITIVE OUTCOMES

IMPLEMENTING THE INDIVIDUALISED PLAN

Developing the individualised plan involves a number of people. The most important member of the team is the client or the person being served. The client should be present at all times whenever there are meetings. Its primary objective is to assist the client in planning how to reach life goals.

 

When implementing the ISP it is important to observe and practice the following:

 Consistency

 Persistence – Individuals may need several attempts to attain their goals.

Create or look for opportunities to practice and reinforce learning in regular

settings and different environments.

 Clear understanding of the plan and the role as a support worker

 Implement the plan in a positive supporting manner. Recognise the client for

a job well done. Offer feedback when needed and discuss it in a constructive

approach.

 Document all required behaviors, successes and concerns related to the plan.

The plan may need revisions depending on the changes of needs, goals and

desires of the client. Documentation will help identify those areas that need

modifications.

 Make sure to communicate any adjustments in the plan to the supervisor so

that it may be reviewed thoroughly. Consult the supervisor when there is a

challenge or difficulty in the implementation the plan or if the goal is

becoming less viable.

 

TRAINING AND SUPERVISION

The ability of support workers plays a key role in the success of involving clients in the individual planning process. Support workers should have a greater understanding of their roles and responsibilities to encourage the active participation of the client. Support workers need to be trained, coached and supervised.

 

 

 

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When the planning is person-centred, the recommended forms of training and learning for the support workers could be:

 Practical tasks

 Ongoing training sessions rather than a one-time classroom type of training

 Access to support

 Peer feedback sessions

 

Quality training and feedback are likely to result in adequate support and service to clients and participation in the individual planning process.

 

Supervisors of support workers should make sure that the skills acquired during training are applied effectively in the work environment. Support workers need to be motivated and supported enabling them to be aligned with the team’s culture and processes.

 

The training, opportunities and incentives for staff will be helpful in increasing the participation and cooperation of clients in individual planning.

 

It is recommended that support workers are adequately supervised to successfully develop, implement and revise high-quality individual plans; and indicate the different scenarios and methods of how people with disabilities and high support needs are included in preference assessment, individual planning and fulfillment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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MONITOR LEVEL OF ENGAGEMENT IN CONSULTATION WITH SUPERVISOR

When the client has an established individualised plan, centred on meeting their needs, it is important that the plan be continually reviewed in order to determine its effectiveness. The worker needs to monitor the activities of the client to check that they are actually using the services implemented in the original plan.

 

The needs of the client may change over time. This may be due to the ageing process or it might be that they have simply changed their goals in life. Whatever the reason, it is important for the worker to ensure that the individualised plan is closely aligned with the objectives of the client.

 

A well-structured individualised plan should incorporate:

 The expected standards of the service

 Staff requirements

 Roles and responsibilities of all parties

 The criteria by which the plan will be monitored

 The reporting process to be followed

 The processes that will be used to obtain feedback

 

The disability sector, aged care, medical/ clinical services, care, youth work and drug and alcohol services are all have similar standards in terms of organisational requirements, because they are based on standards for community services. Standards are the expectations the organisation holds with regard to the quality of service that will be provided.

 

While there will be some variation in the standards of each organisation, they are all monitored through government audits and must be compliant with legislative and regulatory requirements. All clients have a right to proper and consistent care and must be treated with respect in all aspects of care.

 

To ensure that the individualised plan is continually relevant to the needs of the client, organisations need to ensure that:

 The staff they employ are appropriately trained in recognising the ongoing

needs of the client

 

 

 

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 The necessary resources and support mechanisms are available to both the

client and their carers

 Work is continually monitored and measured

 Improvements are made as required

 

Standards are established to ensure quality and consistency within organisational operations. Likewise, they are put in place to make sure that the performance of the organisations employees is of the required standards. Standards provide operational guidelines for the employees as well as the tools to be used in the measurement of their performance. Monitoring all aspects of care is required to ensure that the relevant standards are being met.

 

Specialist and external client services need to be monitored according to the agreed procedures, against defined performance indicators. In situations where the service delivery does not meet the required standards, interventions need to be implemented for the necessary improvement to be made.

 

REPORTING

Part of the role of the community services worker as we have discussed is to assess and monitor the relevance of the individualised plan. When aspects of the plan are identified as not being relevant to the needs of the client, or require review due to their changing needs, it is appropriate for the worker to report this to their supervisor.

 

The role of the care worker in each individualised plan should be negotiated and agreed between the supervisor and the care workers. So too should reporting procedures and accountability.

 

For each client, case supervision methods can be implemented to identify any issues that might affect the relevance of the individualised plan. The monitoring of the individualised plan.

 

The needs and care of the client will often be overseen by a key worker or coordinator. The coordinator generally has a supervisory role and works in close alliance with the other workers of the organisation. Liaising with carers, other organisations, families and other professionals, the coordinator supervises the delivery of services to the client according to their individualised plan.

 

 

 

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Coordinators access clinical expertise from service providers, coordinate responsibility for the clinical implementation of a plan, and provide leadership to other staff to better manage people with complex needs. Key coordinators are the people who supervise the case/ care plan and to whom care workers must report. Thus, it is imperative that the coordinator establishes an effective working relationship with the staff with whom they are supervising.

 

The coordinator or supervisor can provide valuable input relevant to the areas of the individualised plan that may require review. The coordinator is generally a person who is skilled in the delivery of services and recognising the needs of the client. When a worker recognises the need for review f the individualised plan, they should report it to their supervisor, so that a collaborative decision can be made about the possible changes that may be required. This process should take place with the input of other persons involved in the delivery of services to the client, and of course in consultation with the client themselves.

 

Case meetings might be held to address specific issues relating to the delivery of services, solve problems and provide the client to provide their input regarding the delivery of services.

 

Case conferences or meetings might be held to address issues, solve problems, eliminate duplication of problems and allow the client opportunities for input into service delivery plan development.

 

Organisational policies and procedures should ensure that the necessary time and resources are provided to facilitate for regular case consultation meetings. These meetings enable strategies to be implemented and feedback on progress to be provided.

 

You may find it beneficial to hold a formal meeting with supervisors and experienced personnel to discuss ideas, develop individualised plans, evaluate the outcomes of an individualised plan or to make the appropriate changes.

 

When monitoring of the individualised plan, you will need to report to your supervisor or coordinator to ensure that the actions you perform as a care worker meet duty of care requirements and fit within the agreed boundaries of the plan.

 

 

 

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Making regular reports to your supervisor, you will be able to negotiate and discuss; problem-solving, the rights of the clients, issues relating to family members or representatives, accountability and conflict resolution strategies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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T O P I C 3 – I D E N T I F Y , A D D R E S S A N D M O N I T O R B A R R I E R S T O C O M M U N I T Y

P A R T I C I P A T I O N A N D S O C I A L I N C L U S I O N

RECOGNISE PHYSICAL, SKILL AND OTHER BARRIERS TO COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND SOCIAL INCLUSION

INDIVIDUALISED SUPPORT PLAN

This plan includes the following goals:

 Assess the specific needs and abilities of the person with a disability (client).

 Identify a strategic approach to addressing the needs and facilitate

community participation and inclusion.

 

These plans are developed through the collaboration of experts, the person with the disability and caregivers. Progress should be checked by setting review dates and applying modifications if needed.

 

People with disabilities often times encounter factors that prevent them from fulfilling their needs, goals and interests. These barriers can be environmental and physical in nature such as:

 Architectural barriers – accessibility problems

 Attitudinal barriers – stigma and negative attitudes

 Transportation barriers – transport difficulties

 Economical barriers – limited financial support

 Barriers of omission – social exclusion, discrimination

 

A person with a disability is also often times confined by their own physical, emotional and cognitive limitations. These limitations or barriers that are within and from the individual can be temporal or permanent. Some intrinsic barriers are the following:

 Skill/Challenge gaps – life skills, social skills and employability skills

 

 

 

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 Behaviour and attitude – disposition of the individual with disability;

tendency to be uncooperative or withdrawn

 Health Problems – isolation due to illness

 

OVERCOMING BARRIERS

The principles and best practice of inclusion are reliable basis for identifying and overcoming barriers to participation. The approach may include the following:

 Applying a person-centered process – It is because the overall welfare and

personal preferences of the individual are the key considerations.

 Building partnership with the community and encouraging cooperation

 Involving the family of the person with disability

 Providing open options and opportunities specifically for the individual based

on the person’s goals, strengths, abilities and interests

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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COLLABORATE WITH THE PERSON WITH DISABILITY TO IDENTIFY SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME BARRIERS, IN

CONSULTATION WITH SUPERVISOR

The physical features of different building, establishments and premises can create barriers that can put the additional challenge to people with disabilities. This would create a significant disadvantage to people with disabilities and give them more difficulties in accessing goods or services.

 

A physical feature is characterized by the following:

 Driven by the architecture, design or construction of the building

 Forms part of the approach, entrance or exit to the premises

 Can be fittings, fixtures, furniture, equipment, machinery or materials

 

Examples of physical features include:

 Steps, stairways, kerbs

 Floors and paving

 Doors and gates

 Toilets and washing facilities

 Lighting and ventilation

 

Under the Disability Discrimination Act, reasonable adjustments should be made to overcome these barriers. Adjustments can be done by:

 Removing the physical feature altogether

 Modifying it in such a way that it will no longer be considered a barrier

 Providing reasonable means of allowing disabled people to avoid a feature

and/or use another

 

Below are examples of physical barriers and solutions:19

Parking spaces are too narrow

 

19 http://www.nchpad.org/833/4243/Using~a~Fitness~Center~Does~Not~Have~to~be~an~Exercise~in~Frustration~~~~Tips~for~ People~with~Mobility~and~Visual~Disabilities (accessed 2 April 2015).

 

 

 

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 Simple/Low-Cost Solution: Use cones and/or tape and temporary signs to mark additional parking spaces

 

 Involved/High-Cost Solution: Restripe parking area to include required widths for accessible parking spaces

 

 

No curb cuts

 Simple/Low-Cost Solution: Install a temporary ramp between the parking

area and the sidewalk or an accessible entrance

 Involved/High-Cost Solution: Install permanent curb cuts

 

 

Ramp is too steep

 Simple/Low-Cost Solution: Install a temporary ramp between the parking

area and the sidewalk or an accessible entrance

 Involved/High-Cost Solution: Lengthen the ramp or rebuild it to include

switchbacks

 

 

High countertop for check-in area or desk makes it difficult to see staff and sign in

 Simple/Low-Cost Solution: Place sign-in or check-in materials on a side table

or use a clipboard

 Involved/High-Cost Solution: Install a lower countertop or lower a section of

the existing counter

 

 

Facility has two floors but no elevator

 Simple/Low-Cost Solution: Ask staff to move equipment that you use to the

ground level

 Involved/High-Cost Solution: Install an elevator

 

 

 

 

 

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SUPPORT THE PERSON TO IMPLEMENT STRATEGIES TO ADDRESS BARRIERS TO COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION

ACCORDING TO THEIR INDIVIDUALISED PLAN AND MONITOR THE SUCCESS OF STRATEGIES TO ADDRESS BARRIERS IN

CONSULTATION WITH THE PERSON AND SUPERVISOR

The lack of availability of transport services is one of the pressing challenges for people with disabilities. Limited access to transportation means limited access to important services and facilities such as education, health care or employment. Transport is an important support service which enables them to enjoy many if not all aspects of the community.

 

Solutions proposed to curb this problem put emphasis on increasing the accessibility and affordability of transport services and providing alternatives such as:

 Expanding the taxi sector

 Bonus system for taxi drivers who do their job well

 Nationwide travel card concession

 Training of transport operators

 

Most of the problems that people with disabilities have with regard to transport are magnified for those in the rural and regional areas. Transport is very important in these areas to help reduce the issue of social isolation.

 

One way to drive transport and mobility management is to create better publicity and promotion about public transportation. Enabling individuals, particularly people with disabilities, by involving them in solving the problems of transportation is one way to manage transport and mobility barriers.

 

Adequate preparation before actually traveling such as accessing information and schedules in advance is one way to reduce the difficulty of acquiring transportation service.

 

Some public transport help for people with disabilities is following:

 Assistance dogs  Wheelchair access

 Wheelchair accessible taxis (WATs)

 

 

 

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 Passes for people with physical or cognitive disabilities

 Passes for people who are blind or vision impaired

 

There are some disabled individuals who have less complex needs and are able to manage transportation needs in a more practical setting. Below are some solutions they can consider:20

 Consider trying the buddy system

 Develop several supporters for the buddy system

 Get information, county and city maps, etc. at the customer service center of

your public transportation agency

 Do a “dry run” before very important first time appointments ( e.g. doctor

appointments or job interviews )

 Ask a peer specialist, case manager, recovery coach, residential counselor, etc.

for help with public transportation trips, as well as trip planning, obtaining

and interpreting schedules, getting maps, etc.

 Plan your trip

 Ride specific routes

 Read and understand route maps and schedules

 Practice getting to and from your bus stop, train station, and subway station

 Practice recognising bus stops, bus numbers, and landmarks

 Consider purchasing transportation passes

 Look for discounted fares and passes for people on disability

 Know how and where to transfer to other buses, trains, and subways. Know

who to ask for help

 Learn to travel independently and confidently by bus, train or subway

 

The issue of transport and travel should be included in individualised community support plans. This process should include:21

 Identifying goals and strategies with individuals to overcome any travel and

transport issues

 

20 http://tucollaborative.org/pdfs/Transportation_Monograph.pdf (accessed 2 April 2015). 21 Geoff Arnott, 2011, The Disability Support Worker, Pearson Australia, p.182.

 

 

 

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 Assessing risk factors for health and safety, and putting controls in place

 Reviewing goals and strategies, and making any required adjustments

 Establishing processes to evaluate the ongoing success of goals and strategies

 

At all times you should ensure that you monitor the strategies you have put in place so that you can identify if the barriers have been overcome.

 

Without constant monitoring people may begin to not attend activities or they may be very reluctant to attend because their needs have still not been met.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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RECOGNISE OWN LIMITATIONS IN ADDRESSING ISSUES AND SEEK ADVICE WHEN NECESSARY

Support workers may need to evaluate their own skills and limitations to be able to handle issues properly and seek advice and assistance when needed. It is important that support workers are familiar with the policies, protocols and procedures of the organisation. They may refer to these when providing advice when there are requirements for communication support or changes in physical barriers.

 

DELEGATION, REFERRAL AND HANDOVER

Delegation involves requesting another support worker, usually with the supervisor or management’s approval, to provide care while still overseeing the responsibility for the client’s care.

 

Referral involves transferring, in part or full, of responsibility for the client’s care. This may be necessary when the support required is outside the expertise or competency of the support worker.

 

Handover is the process of transferring all responsibilities to another support worker or service provider.

 

Maintain awareness of own professional limitations and knowledge gaps. When limitations are present and before taking any reasonable steps, it is recommended to consult other team members or the supervisor.

 

ETHICAL STANDARDS

Ethics is the beliefs that constitute the right conduct in a particular situation or job. A sound ethical framework is necessary for providing high-quality care and to protect the rights of individuals with a disability, especially those who may have complex needs and are more vulnerable.

 

One element of ethical standards, in the setting of providing care and service to people

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