The Good Shepherd and the Black Sheep: Paradoxical Irony in The Lame Shall Enter First

“[W]hen thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth” counsels the Bible, thus setting the precedent for all well-meaning members of western society concerning their charitable intentions (Matt. 6. 3). Humanity’s motivation to aid others, regardless of the outcome, is oft times spotted by the subtle struggle between selflessness and selfishness. Flannery O’Connor captures this classic conflict between good and evil in Southern Grotesque fashion through her characters, the protagonist Sheppard and his foil, Rufus Johnson, in [comment2] “The Lame Shall Enter First”. comment3] Challenging the literal paradigm of light and darkness, O’Connor weaves together well crafted characterization, cryptic dialogue, and both biblical and literary allusion in this paradoxical plot and, by way of Sheppard and the antithetical Rufus, blends the black and white of Christian dogma into an ironic grey. The contrast of light and dark begins with the description and characterization of the apparently angelic [comment4] Sheppard, and continues with the introduction of the obscure and ominous Rufus Johnson. O’Connor is not pretentious in her description and development of either character.
Sheppard’s white hair and “halo” are obvious references to his protagonistic status as the story’s do-gooder [comment5] (Norton 371). The narrator continues on by lauding his charitable contribution to the community as a counselor and weekend volunteer for “boys no one else cared about” (372). The reader’s only initial clue toward Sheppard’s self-righteous mania is his deliberate, guilt-implying sermon towards Norton, his disconcerted and doomed son. It is not, however, until the arrival of the dim, drenched Rufus that seemingly stark white coat of Sheppard loses its untainted radiance. comment6] Johnson is literally cast as the black sheep from the moment he limps into the house in his soaking “wet black suit” (376). The ultimate personification of evil comes when he is physically compared directly to the perennial villian Adolf Hitler (378). His opaque character is developed as dark as his appearance through his unending ingratitude and spiteful words toward his supposed savior, Sheppard. The ambiguous dialogue between the two main characters continues to blur the line between the traditional literal concept of good versus evil and the author’s own Grotesque version. comment7] O’Connor’s use of foreshadowing and plot development through dialogue is essential to the work, and is much more obvious upon rereading it. Though Sheppard’s works are concrete and compassionate, his words are abstract and empty. His answers to both Norton and Rufus come in rehearsed, logical explanations. [comment8] Sheppard’s attempts to animate either child about their future are thwarted by his own uncertainty. The clearest example of this comes from one of the most crucial sections of the story, when Sheppard fails to satisfy Norton’s desire to know where his deceased mother is: “She doesn’t exist [. . ] That’s all I have to give you, [. . . ] the truth” (383). [comment9] Where the “good” shepherd fails, the black sheep prevails. The dark character that Rufus is developed into shows an admirable assurity and for once a faint light flickers from behind the “black sheen [that] appear[ed] in the boy’s eyes” (375) as he describes the existence of heaven and hell to Norton, confirming that the boy’s mother is “saved” (383). Then, in one of the most obvious uses of foreshadowing in the story, Rufus goes on to tell Norton [comment10] that “Right now you’d go where she is [. . . but if you live long enough, you’ll go to hell” (383). Once again Sheppard and his voice of reason seem to grow grayer as he immediately tells Norton to close the window, as if to separate him from the stars and his newly found hope in the existence of his mother (383). Admittedly influenced by her orthodox Christian background (408), O’Connor scatters both biblical and assorted literal allusions throughout her story, creating somewhat of a parody of common Christian themes. The use of Sheppard as the name of the protagonist binds the character to some religious comparison immediately.
This is only reinforced when Rufus pronounces bitterly: “He thinks he’s Jesus Christ! ” (381) [comment11]Another use of allusion with reference to Sheppard is Rufus’ [comment12] crudely accurate accusation of him as a “big tin Jesus” (395). Like the forlorn tin man from The Wizard of Oz, Rufus’ statement argues that Sheppard is just as hollow as that empty, heartless shell of a man, regardless of his outwardly good deeds. Perhaps the most encompassing phrase in the story is O’Connor’s allusion to the verse in St.

Matthew quoted in the first paragraph. [comment13] Repeated both at the beginning of the story and in his final appearance, Rufus declares that Sheppard “don’t know his left hand from his right! ” (377, 395). Clearly O’Connor is alluding to Sheppard’s selfish or misguided agenda well illustrated when he tells Norton of his desire to help the orphaned Rufus. Sheppard’s publicly done deeds are challenged by Rufus, the unwilling recipient of a well-meaning man going through the motions, yet craving some sort of reward for his actions.
The once polarized characters grow ever closer with the equalizing power of reality. “The Lame Shall Enter First” ends as abruptly as it begins. There is no cathartic victory for the alleged [comment14] “good shepherd”, only the agony of total defeat. Sheppard’s epiphany comes too late and the stark contrast that once distinguished him from the dark object of his alms turns into the faded realization that he is no better than the beleaguered beneficiary.
Through O’Connor’s strategic literary devices, deft character contrast, and parody of entrenched Christian values, the reader is left to digest and dissect the fact that maybe the entire flock [comment15] isn’t worth one black sheep. Between the black and white islands of moral certainty, good and evil, there lies a sea of ironic grey. Works Cited The King James Version. Great Britain: Cambridge UP, 1996. O’Connor, Flannery. “The Lame Shall Enter First. ” The Norton Introduction to Literature. Eds. Jerome Beaty and J. Paul Hunter. 7th ed. New York: Norton, 1998. 371-414.

The Story of an Hour essay

The Story of an Hour: Discuss three examples AND kinds irony used in “The Story of an Hour. ” Make sure to have one example of verbal irony, one of situational irony, and one of dramatic irony. One example of verbal irony in “A Story of an Hour” is the last sentence in the story which says “When the doctors came they said she had died of heart disease—of joy that kills” (DiYanni 41) This is verbal irony because it is written that she died of too much happiness to see her husband, whom she thought was dead, alive.
However, it was because she was incredibly distressed to see him. One instance of situational irony in “The Story of an Hour” is when Mrs. Mallard learns of the death of her husband. At first, she reacts as any person would at the news of losing someone close to them by crying and isolating herself. However her real feelings about her husband’s death are shown later when she thought to herself, “There would be no one to live for during those coming years; she would live for herself” (40) However this feeling of freedom did not last long.
Towards the end of the story her husband appears at the door unharmed. She then realized that she was not free from her unhappy marriage at all. Dramatic irony is also used in “The Story of an Hour” through Mrs. Mallard’s realization that she is free from her husband and with her death. While Mrs. Mallard was alone in her room she realized that she would no longer be bound to her husband but rather free to do whatever she should choose.

However, no one else in the story knew this; they all believed that she was very sad and depressed. Josephine, a woman in the house, even thought Mrs. Mallard was making herself sick. She said, “I beg; open the door—you will make yourself ill” (40) However, Mrs. Mallard was doing quite the opposite by “drinking in a very elixir of life through that open window” (40).

400 employees

closed underperforming branches

Cultural Relativism

|Cultural Moral Relativism. Do We All Agree? | |Essay #1 Pratheep | |Sivabaalan 100266114 | |11/18/2009 | |James Connelly | I find Rachel’s arguments against the view of Cultural Moral Relativism persuasive and very convincing. Believers of Cultural Relativism have influenced the notion that cultural moral codes are culture bound.
After explicating and assessing Cultural Relativism views and Rachels arguments, it is clear that there are discrepancies and inconsistencies in the views that favor Cultural Relativism. Rachels introduces a number of considerations that reject Cultural Relativism. Cultural Relativism tells us that there is no such thing as universal truth in ethics, and what does exist is the customs of different societies. Furthermore, we cannot judge a custom of another society or our own as right or wrong. Cultural Relativism simplifies its facts by employing an argument, known as the ‘Cultural Differences’ argument. ) Different cultures have different moral codes 2) Therefore, there is no objective “truth” in morality. Right and wrong are only matters of opinion, and opinions vary from culture to culture (Rachels, p18) Rachels identifies that argument as being unsound, thus an invalid argument altogether. Rachels explains that the conclusion does not follow the premise. Rachels explains that the argument’s premise concerns what people believe, and the conclusion concerns what really is the case. I agree with Rachels reasoning on the argument, the premise is motivated by observations, and not the facts and the conclusion suggests what is true.
Therefore, the argument cannot be considered as a strong view for cultural relativism since the conclusion does not logically follow the premise; an unsound argument. Rachels attempts to provide stronger claims to reject Cultural Relativism through a method known as reduction ad absurbum. One of the main points that Cultural Relativism stresses is that “We can no longer say that customs of other societies are morally inferior to our own”. Rachels disagrees with this notion in contrast with less compassionate practices in other societies.

Rachels brings up examples, such as the oppression of the Chinese Government upon its citizens. Cultural Relativism denies us to condemn such actions because we cannot judge practices in another society to our own. I believe Rachel has a good point on how far is too far, when it comes to customs in other societies. Situations and practices like excursion, slavery, stoning and etc raises questions on how tolerate can people be on inhuman practices. Another proposition that Cultural Relativism brings up is that “We could no longer criticize the code of our own society”.
Rachel criticizes this statement by suggesting that people do not believe our society’s code is perfect, but Cultural Relativism disallows us to think of ways why our society can be better. I agree that our society’s moral code is not prefect and there are a number of reasons that suggests this. For example, animal testing and killings of specific dog breeds are questionable in our society’s moral codes. Furthermore, in our society we have different views on the topic of abortion, where people feel it is right and wrong.
Like many societies and our own, we are prone to question our own moral codes and customs. Lastly, “The idea of moral progress would be called into doubt”, is the last statement Cultural Relativism conveys. The statement contradicts many of Cultural Relativism views it expressed. Rachels example of women rights can be seen as progress, yet it also means that the old ways, before the movement, are now being replace by new and improved ways. Cultural Relativism does view women rights changes as progress; however it forbids us from thinking that this is making our society better.
Thus, cultural relativism views on progress makes this argument contradictory. The five tenets of Cultural Relativism undergo further explication as Rachel notes further criticism. The first claim, “different societies have different moral codes”, holds some truth, however fails to explain that there are universal values that all societies do share. Values such as truth telling, prohibition of murder and caring for the young are conceived by all societies. The only difference is the factual beliefs, not their values. I agree with Rachel, that there are some values that cultures do share.
The second tenet, “The moral code of a society determines what is right within that society; that is, if the moral code of a society says that a certain action is right, then that action is right, at within that society”. Rachel assesses and explains that there is a vast difference in what a society believes and what is really true. Practices, like excision, can be very wrong and suggests does it really promote or hinder human well being. I believe it hinders a human well being, excision is a painful procedure that abolishes sexual pleasure for the individual.
Scarring and tendencies to contract disease(s) are most probable in the long run. Cultural relativism believes that society’s morals of a culture can never be wrong. However, Rachels believes that we can see that societies are in need of moral improvement. I agree with Rachels statements, there is room for societies to understand and learn that mistakes can be made even in cultural customs. The third tenet, “There is no objective standard that can be used to judge one society’s code as better than another’s. There are no moral truths that hold for all people at all times”.
Rachels strongly disagrees with this tenet in cases of stoning, slavery and excision. Rachels says, “it always matters whether a practice promotes or hinder the welfare of the people affected by it”(Rachels, p28). People affected by such barbaric practices do not seem to improve the quality of their lives nor their happiness. The forth tenet, “The moral code of our own society has no special status; it is but one among many”. Rachels points out that Cultural Relativism says, “it is merely one among many”(Rachels, p28) which directs an ‘open question’. A code in particular can be one of the best or one of the worse.
This opens up an entirely new discussion that there are customs that are questioned to being right or wrong. The fifth tenet, “It is arrogant for us to judge other cultures. We should always be tolerate of them”. Rachels raises truth in this statement, we are often arrogant when we criticize other cultures, and tolerance is a good thing. Nevertheless, Rachels notes, we shouldn’t tolerate everything, human societies have done horrible things. Tolerance can only go so far, to a point where intervention is crucial. This claim is inconsistent with the second claim, ‘that right and wrong are determined by the norms of a society’.
There are instants that norms of a society favor intolerance, for example the Nazi army invading Poland. Cultural Relativism teaches us not to criticize the Nazis for being intolerant if all they’re doing is following their own moral codes. However, cultural relativism also tells us that the norms of a culture are bound within the culture itself. Since the norms are bound in Polish society, invasion and manslaughter are not part of their norms. Work Cited: Rachels, James and Stuart Rachels. (2009). The Elements of Moral Philosophy. 6th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Human Resource Management Argumentative Essay

Question: Imagine that you are the chairperson of the personnel selection committee for your organization (school, office or department). Your committee is required to interview a number of candidates for the position of leader / manager/ principal of your organization. Reflecting on the stages of the selection process discussed in unit 4, which of the stages would you encourage your committee to use? Using relevant literature and references substantiate your rationale for the choice of preferred stages.
Anderson (1991) defined selection as “the process of discovering the qualifications and characteristics of job applicants in order to establish their suitability for the position,” (p. 8). Elmore & Burney (2000) noted that “choosing a leader who possesses the right attributes and skills can propel a school forward in meeting its goals and laying a foundation for excellence” (p. 108). It is evident that choosing the best school leader is one of the most important decisions the selection committee can make.
To this end, as chairperson of the personnel selection committee for the Basser High School the following stages of the selection process will be proposed: the screening interview, selection tests, employment interview, reference and background analysis and job offer. Utilizing the proposed stages will ensure that the right person is selected in the most cost effective and timely and professional manner. Dessler (2005) indicated “preliminary sifting ensures only the best candidates with the right skills and characteristics move forward,” (p. 194).

The screening interview seeks to establish a short list of candidates who best meet the job specification criteria. This preliminary interview seeks to ascertain whether an applicant has the basic requisite skills and qualifications such as good interpersonal skills, the zeal to lead and the right credentials. Such scrutiny which is based on the organizations needs will save valuable resources in the subsequent stages of the selection process. Time and resources will not be wasted on unsuitable applicants but can be utilized to strengthen the selection process.
The necessary selection tests should be administered after preliminary screening. Armstrong (2010) concluded that “selection tests are used to provide more valid and reliable evidence of levels of intelligence, personality characteristics, abilities, aptitudes and attainments than can be obtained from an interview”, (p. 462). Selection tests such as personality tests and psychological tests are very important since “the personal qualities of a good leader, more than any other factors, determine the success or failure of an organisation”, (Weller 2003, p. 17).
A candidate being interviewed can influence the interviewer into thinking he or she possesses the necessary personal skills or the potential to meet the specifications of the job but in reality this is not the case. This is referred to as the Halo effect and can in this instance,negatively influence the selection process. To overcome this barrier and maintain objectivity, the suggested selection tests should be utilised. Traits such as helpfulness, conscientiousness, independence, vision, or how well an individual can use his knowledge to enhance the quality of life, (Personnel Selection, 2012), are difficult to evaluate using an interview.
It is therefore best to professionally administer, a valid and reliable standardised personality and psychological test. Dessler (2005) described a reliable test as one that yields consistent scores when a person takes two alternative forms of the test or when he or she takes the test on two different occasions. Ebel and Frisbee (1991) stressed that a valid test fulfils the function it was designed to fill. If valid and reliable tests are correctly administered, the requisite qualities would be evaluated objectively, hence increasing the probability that the best candidates will be selected.
Fisher, Schoefeldt and Shaw (1996) emphasize that the most important screening method is the employment interview. It is designed to predict future job performances and provide committee members with a more holistic view of applicants on the basis of their oral responses to oral inquiries. Requisite leadership qualities such as excellent communication skills can be evaluated. Additionally, applicants can seize the opportunity to gain a deeper insight into the company and to ask relevant questions.
Whaley (2002), highlighted that “when administered properly the interview can be a good indicator of performance in comparison to other selection techniques,” (p. 76). The structured interviews should be utilised to ensure that the chosen candidate is selected solely on merit and suitability, (Personnel Selection, 2012). This interview consist of questions planned in advance and are asked of each candidate in the same way. The only difference is in the probing questions.
Research shows conclusively that the highest reliability and validity are realised in the structured interview using trained interviewers, thus increasing objectivity and reducing stereotyping and perception, Yeung (2008). Reference and background analysis play an integral part in the selection process. They help to ensure good hiring decisions by verifying factual information provided by the candidate and seek to uncover damaging information such as criminal records. It would be a tragedy if the selection committee hires a candidate and later discovered he or she is a criminal and therefore a potential treat to students and teachers.
This scenario can be avoided if criminal background checks are carried out as part of the selection process. It is vital that school safety be a pivotal concern of the selection committee thus all shortlisted candidates should be subjected to a vigorous criminal background check to ensure that they have an untainted background and is fit to lead the institution. Reference and background checks are often inexpensive and are straight forward methods of verifying applicants’ information. At the end of the aforementioned stages, it is imperative that the successful applicant be informed of the job offer via telephone followed by a written letter.
This correspondence should entail information such as “the names of employer and employee, job title, job specifications and salary”. Other relevant information such as “termination periods and start date of employment”, (Personnel Selection, 2012, p. 73) should also be included. This stage will prevent misunderstandings and confirms any previously mentioned specifics. Moreover, it would help to introduce the successful applicant to the organisation and ensures a smooth job transition. Choosing a leader is a costly task and the current demands of learning institutions make selection even more challenging.
If the committee is to select a high quality principal, who possesses the necessary skills and attributes, it is imperative to carefully follow a systematic process. The possible cost and time arguments are substantive but the aforementioned stages are necessary to ensure the selection of the best candidate. Ultimately, employing the right selection stages is a more efficient use of time and resources than dealing with the consequences of poor personnel selection, such as early recruitment, compensation and poor leadership. References Armstrong, M. 2006). A Handbook of human resource management practice. 10th edition. London: Kogan Page Limited. Anderson, M. E. (1991). Principals: How to train, recruit, select, induct and evaluate leaders for America’s schools. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management. Retrieved March 10, 2012, from http://eric. uoregon. edu/pdf/ books/principal. pdf Dessler, G. ( 2005). Human resource management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, Prentice Hall. Ebel, R. L. , & Frisbie, D. A. Essentials of educational measurement. (5th Edition).
Eaglewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. EDLM 2001 Unit 4 (Personnel Selection) (2012). Retrieved from UWI Open Campus: http://courses. open. uwi. edu/course/view. php? id=250 Elmore, R. , & Burney, D. (2000). Leadership and learning: Principal recruitment, induction, and instructional leadership in Community School District #2, New York City. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh, Learning and Research Development Center Fisher, C. , Schoefeldt, L. , & Shaw, J. (1996). Human resource management. (3rd Edition). Princeton, NJ: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Weller ,L. D. ( 2003). Quality middle school leadership: Eleven central skills area. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Education. Whaley, J. (Ed. ) (2002). Developing the effective principal: Hiring, evaluation and retention practices for the superintendent. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers, Inc. Whitaker, K. (2002). Principal role changes and influence on principal recruitment and selection: An international perspective. Journal of Educational Administration, 41(1), 37–54. Yeung, R. (2011). Successful Interviewing and Recruitment. London: Kogan Page Limited.

Character of Mrs. Sparsit in Hard Times

MRS. sparsit is an elderly lady who is highly connected and have a huge aristpcratic bvackground. her husband belonged to the family of “POWERLS”. Scadgers…. she is a widow now, fallen yupon evil days to take up job. She works as a housekeeper olf mr. Josiah Bounderby. bounderby treats her in the most polite manner and never fails to pay compliments and regards to her excellent background. Mrs. Sparsit is very much proud of her coonnectipons.
The jnovelist descxribes her as a p;erson haveing dense black Coriolanian eyebrows and a thick roman nose with classical eyes.. o stress on her aristocratic background in a satirical way. dickens have also mafde her the object of satire with reference to her pride and vanity for her high connections. It is because of this pride that sjhe shares her employers contempt for the workers. It is due to this disdain she treats Stephen Blackpool with total lack of symparthy when he comes tp Bounderby to discuss his matrimonial troubles. she even regards him as an “Impiety of people”. Bounderby’s decesipn top marry Loiusa ; Gradgrind’s daughter is obviously unfavourable to MRs.
Sparsits, bu t she dint utterd a word against it,. Bounderby was aware of her dissaproval regarding his marrige so hi took a bottle of smelling salts witrh him under the impression that she wou;d faint on hearing the unwelcomed news. But to the utter surprise of Bounderby she saw no sign of trouble or dissaproval on her face. Instead she looked at him in a pityful manner and extended her goodwishes to bounderby. BOunderby seems to understand mrs. sparsit well therefore he asserted at once dat his housekeeper woyuld not be abel to beer the site of hiss would be wife.

assistance should also be given to the person (IACP

2006). Formal Investigation After the Complaint The second step is the process of investigating the complaint. In addition to training recommendations by Whisenand (2007) illustrated earlier in the article

target materials were removed from the target holders. They were again cleaned with ultrasonic bath using isopropyl alcohol also dried and weighed using the electronic balance. The experiment was repeated six times for more accurate results and results were tabulated. Results obtained during the experimental procedure are discussed in the next chapter.

Business Communications

You will develop a business proposal persuading the senior management of your organization to initiate a change in processes, procedures, products, people, or structure based on events currently happening in your company. You may use experience with a past company if applicable.
In your paper,

Develop an introduction that provides sufficient background on the topic, a thesis statement, and a logical conclusion that smoothly flows from the body of the paper.
Identify processes, procedures, products, people, or structures that need change based on events that are or were happening in your current or past company.
Organize the information using appropriate headings based on the context of the recommended change initiative.
Provide a fully developed rational argument to persuade management into initiating change.

The Business Proposal Final Paper

Must be six to seven double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s APA Style (Links to an external site.)
Must include a separate title page with the following:

Title of paper
Student’s name
Course name and number
Instructor’s name
Date submitted

GP practices cannot provide essential services and general management to patients who are terminally ill. Following an independent review of GP out-of-hours services

Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) are also responsible for developing a more integrated out-of-hours system. (Carson Review). The Carson review envisaged that the needs of palliative care patients will be identified in advance noted on the NHS Direct database and passed directly without triage to the service they needed.63This followed from recommendations that transfer of information between GPs and their out-of-hours provider is essential to ensure continuity of care 62