Management and Human Resource Development

Another role of Human Resource Development is to implement or form the corporate strategy. These tasks require them to link the corporate strategy with the organizations missions and goals. According to Legging-Hall and Legging-Hall (1988) and Butler (1988), besides Integrating the corporate strategy with the organizational missions and goals, strategic human resource development also plays an important role in shaping and Influencing the missions and goals (as stated In McCracken and Wallace, 2000). 2.
Top management support In strategic human resource development, top management support is very important in order to implement the corporate strategy. The corporate strategy that has been formed need to be led actively by the top management people rather than lust simply supported by them (Harrison, 1997). Active leadership from the top management will help the managers to adopt strategic thinking in achieving the targeted goals (McCracken and Wallace, 2000). 3. Environmental scanning In SHRED, environmental scanning is very important to develop the strategic planning.
HARD professionals and others senior managers need to conduct the SOOT and PEST analysis. These analyses will help the organization to respond or react to NY changes In the internal or external environment (Rained, 1995; Perry and Salem, 1993). However, environmental scanning alone is not enough because HARD terms and top management need to Implement It (McCracken and Wallace, 2000). Level of Strategic Human Resource Development The first level of contexts that are crucial in order to understand the contribution of strategic human resource development is global environment.

By analyzing and understanding the global environment is very important for an organization in order to be more flexible. Being flexible helps an organization to control and respond quickly to its surrounding, especially the external environment. This level focuses on a multiplicity of external factors that explain the role of SHRED In crisis management and generate particular SHRED initiatives (Wang, Hutchins & Caravan, 2009). There are three sets of component that must be understood In the context of global environment which are local conditions, national conditions and multinational conditions.
Local conditions basically focus on laws and protocol. For example, the organization might need to devise emergency planning processes to tackle potential rises regarding the safety and health law (Wang, Hutchins & Caravan, 2009). Local 1 OFF well as industry characteristics. The organization must alert with the economic and political conditions within the country. For the industry characteristics, the organization must ensure that their products and services have its own uniqueness.
They need to master the products and services very well where all information need to be in their fingertips. They also need to know the targeted audiences for every of the product and services provided. The national conditions which can be divided into four parts. The first part is technology change. The organization must provide adequate training to its employees to increase the productivity of the employees in operating the latest technology. Since technology is rapidly change, so the employees need to be trained from time to time.
The second part is the characteristics of the labor market. An organization must be flexible in terms of planning about the resources of the organizations especially when it comes to human resources. The management needs to hire more expertise. The third set is national culture. The organization need to learn and understand about the culture in order to provided the right products and services. For example, the food industry in Malaysia, they need to ensure that most of the foods are hall in order to fit it with the Muslim culture.
The last part is regarding the national HARD systems. Some countries use the “soft” interventions rather than the “hard” approaches such as codes and protocols (Wang, Hutchins & Caravan, 2009). It may appear as a component of partnership planning between the government, employers and trade unions. The last set of components is the multinational conditions which are cross-culture difference and international laws and regulations. Cross-cultural differences such as cultural assumptions towards planning and risk may also operate by some organizations.
According to Tierney,Linden & Perry (2001), Asian countries are slow to react to disasters and they do not understand the important of systems and processes to deal with these disasters. Meanwhile, according to Ecuador (2002), global terrorist events and international criminal acts have alert the national government regarding the important of providing the security education and professional education of human resources involved in security management. Certain multinational corporations may also pose some policies on individual companies within the reparation’s (Wang, Hutchins & Caravan, 2009).

Emergence of Tele-education

Tele-education has a long history beginning with systems like that for teaching children in Australian Outback, the British Open University and other such organizations. These built on the idea of correspondence courses where course materials are sent periodically by post and augmented the experience with broadcasts either on radio or on TV. The problem of student isolation was addressed partially through techniques such as telephone access or two-way radio links with teachers. At the end of 1980s, the vest majority of distance education throughout the worlds was still primarily print-based.
Technologies used for distance education are evolving from primarily ‘one-way” technologies and applications such as computer aided learning, computer based training and computer aided instruction, to more ‘two-way” technologies and applications such as computer mediated communications and computer conferencing systems for education. The significance of ‘two-way” technologies is that they allow foe interaction between participant and tutors, and perhaps even more significantly amongst participant themselves. This development has allowed and in some senses force researches to look more closely at the impact of educational environment, on the students learning experience.
In the future, it is expected that the telecommunications-based technologies to become the primary means of delivery of distance teaching. The reasons for this are as follows:

a much wider range of technologies are becoming more accessible to potential distance education participants
the costs of technological delivery are dropping dramatically
the technology is becoming easier to use for both tutors and learners
the technology is becoming more powerful pedagogically
education centers will find it increasingly difficult to resist the political and social pressures of the technological imperatives.
The Emergence of Tele-education
Radical changes in the computing infrastructure, spurred by multimedia computing and communication, will do more than extend the educational system, that is revolutionize it. Technological advances will make classrooms mush more accessible and effective. Today, classroom education dominates instruction from elementary school to graduate school. This method has remained popular for a very long time and will probably persist as the most common mode of education.
However, classroom education has its problems, that is the effectiveness decline with increase in the number of students per class. Other pressures affect the instructors, many of whom are not experts in the material they must teach, are not good ‘performers” in class, or simply are not interested in teaching. The biggest limitation of the classroom instruction is that a class meets at a particular time in a particular place. This essentially requires all students and the instructors to collect in one spot for their specified period. But with the emerging technology, these problems can be overcome.
Reasons for studying Tele-education
The current Tele-education systems that have been applied in some countries are generally of multipoint transmission technique. It is found that, this kind of transmission technique having several problems or defects. Mostly, problems raised during the application of the system. One of the significant problems raised is that, for the multipoint transmission, the signals or information transmitted by the sender do not completely received by the receiver.
This problem is might be due to error that occurs during the transmission of the signals or information. Another problem is lag of transmission. For this case, the signals or information transmitted do not arrive at all the receiver at the same time, for example, the question raised by the lecturer might not received by the students at the same time and this is not a good environment for Tele-education system. Some receiver receives the signals earlier than the others and some later or even not receives at all. Therefore, it is important to study the Tele-education technology from time to time to overcome these problems so that the Tele-education system could provide a more effective way of learning environment.
In order to have a lecture from, for example, a very famous professor from other country would require him to come at our place. But the amount of money spent for paying him to give lecture would be very expensive and this also would cause troublesome for him. However, this problem can be solved with Tele-education system in which the professor does not need to go anywhere else to give his lecture. This would save a lot of expenses and time.
Another reason is that, in normal classes the learning process would not be very effective if the number of students in a class is very big. This is because the lecturer alone can not coordinate such a large class. With Tele-education system, one lecturer could deliver his lecture to as many students as possible effectively in a way that a large number of students from different sites having the same lecture at once.
The purpose of this research is to study the current Tele-education system that has been applied in some countries. This study covers the background of Tele-education; that is its definition, the publications of Tele-education; that is any papers that discuss about Tele-education as a whole, the performance of applied Tele-education, and also the technology of Tele-education; that is its network architecture. But the main purpose of this study is to understand the Tele-education system that have been applied in another country and try to implement it in our country.
CCITT Committee Consultatif International Telegraphique et Telephonique
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
ISO International Standard Organization
JAMES Joint ATM Experiment on European Services
SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol
TCP-IP Transmission Control Protocol – Internet Protocol
Since Tele-education is a very new technology that is popularly discussed today, it is quite difficult for me to find any books that discuss about Tele-education from the library. Therefore, the easiest and the fastest way to gather information relating this project is via the Internet. I have surfed and found many interesting sites that discuss about Tele-education. Besides surfing, I also have contacted several people who are involved in this area, Tele-education, by e-mail . But unluckily, this does not really help because most of them did not reply. Besides using the Internet, I also get the information for this project from the IEEE Database at the library of Universiti Telekom.
What is Tele-education? Before discussing about what Tele-education means, lets look at what distance learning is. This is because Tele-education and distance learning are very related to each other. Distance learning is the acquisition of skills and knowledge through electronic communications that allow student and instructor to be separate in either in time or space. The to distance learning is ‘asynchronous learning” which can be defined loosely as learning at different time. It is a highly flexible method of training because the sender and receiver do not need to be synchronized in space or time. But Tele-education is more than that of distance learning. In Tele-education, not only asynchronous but synchronous learning is also made possible. In other words, Tele-education is the evolution of distance learning.
As stated before, asynchronous learning environment is not real-time environment. It is a self-study-based application and is accessed via the Internet to a server. The requirement to the student is only an ordinary PC with standard software and Internet access. This application is applicable for a large amount of users who can access the course independent of each other. The combination of the lecture-part, group-work-part, and self-study-part is another type of Tele-education learning environment, which is synchronous learning. It is a real-time environment. In this environment, students and lecturers can interact with each other simultaneously.
Tele-education use the technology of video teleconferencing that allows two or more parties at different geographical area to interact with each other or to have learning process together. But people usually get confused whether video teleconferencing can be considered as Tele-education as well. Tele-education is actually different with video teleconferencing in a way that Tele-education usually involve a large number of people as compared to video teleconferencing, that is, it is in video teleconferencing many people use a single monitor to see other people at other area but in Tele-education, students have their own monitor that can be used not only to see their lecturer and colleagues but also to send and receive educational materials.

A Comparison Between the Contraindications of Omanipaque and Visipaque

A Comparison Between the Contraindications of Omanipaque and Visipaque
            Drugs have a way of relieving the pain and discomfort that patients experience. Some have been specifically made in order to trace the reasons for such discomfort. One of these drugs is known as the contrast agent. However, the contraindications that these drugs may have on people should be taken into great consideration, so as to avoid more discomfort to patients. Two of the most famous contrast agents include Ioxol (Omanipaque) and  Iodixanol (Vispaque).
              The contradindications of Ioxol (Omanipaque) are similar to those of other drugs. However, thyrotoxicosis becomes more visible with every use. People who had previous reactions to the said drug are also contraindicated (GE Healthcare, April 23, 2006). In addition to this, the drug should not be given to patients who are allergic to Iohexol so that allergic reactions may be prevented. When bacteria is present in the body, Myelography is not advised for this may cause the bacteria to spread rather than treated (GE Healthcare Inc., February 2008).

            When the drug is administered orally, the drug may have its effects on the intestines of the patient causing hypovolemia. Younger patients, such as children, would also experience Diarrhea that would eventually lead to hypovolemia. Elderly patients, on the other hand, may experience loss of the plasma fluid that could lead to shock. If not treated accordingly, this would lead to more serious contraindications to patients (Drugs, 2009)
            Similar to Ioxol (Omanipaque), patients who have bacteria in their body should not be given Iodixanol (Vispaque). This may be attributed to the fact that the bacteria would inhibit the effect of the drug on the patient of the body. In addition to this, the drug should not be administered to pregnant and lactating patients for the drug may also have negative effects on the baby (Peace Health, July 25, 2006). Sometimes, it is better to become more careful than to regret the negative effects in the future.
Iodixanol (Visipaque) on the other hand, is more sensitive to patients than Ioxol (Omanipaque). Intake of the said drug would eventually lead to dehydration, and in so doing, patients should be flushed with water while undergoing treatment. This would also help the kidneys to function properly and avoid any damage whatsoever. The elderly patients should also be given special care, especially when handling these drugs. More care should also be given to the renal function of an elderly, so that further complications may be avoided (Med Help, February 11, 2008).
            Furthermore, other diseases may also be attributed to the administration of Iodixanol (Vispaque). Sickle Cell disease becomes visible to patients who have been intraarterially or intravenously injected with the drug. Patients who have a history of Multiple Myeloma and other similar diseases should not be administered with Iodixanol (Vispaque). This would become harmful to their body that may eventually lead to more complications (GE Healthcare Canada Inc., May 25, 2006, p. 7). As such, the patients should always make sure that each procedure conducted in their body should be approved and checked by their attending physicians.
            Evidently, both drugs have similar effects on the body of the patients. One factor that may be considered is their dosage and method of administration to the patients. As contrast agents, both have the same use on the patients. However, their contraindications would become the very basis as to what the physicians would opt to use on the patients.
            Sometimes, it is not bad to be careful when trying to medicate someone. Numerous tests and medical histories may be required before a certain drug may become cleared for administration, but these become the very core for a patient to be alleviated of the pain endured. Drugs are there for their numerous reasons, and regardless of how effective they may all seem, it is always important to put the safety of humans above anything else.

(2009). Omnipaque. Retrieved February 23, 2009 from
(2009). Omnipaque UK prescribing information. GE Healthcare. Retrieved February 23, 2009 from
Peace Health. (July 25, 2006). Iodixanol. Retrived February 23, 2009 from
Med Help. (February 11, 2008). Visipaque. Retrieved February 23, 2009 from
GE Healthcare Canada Inc. (2006). Visipaque (Iodixanol). Retrieved February 23, 2009 from


Assignment 3 – Week 8 Essay 3

Assignment Instructions
Assignment 3 – Week 8 Essay 3

Instructions:  Develop an essay of 3 pages. Be sure to argue a particular point of view in your essay (your thesis) and cite varied examples from the readings in MLA format in order to support your perspective. Include a works cited page. Additional MLA information can be found in Week 3’s and Week 6’s readings. Please submit your essay to the assignment section of the course. This assignment is worth 30% of your final grade.
Up to this point we have discussed the Romantic period and the Victorian era, Modernism and Post-Modernism. You will select one era and in partial fulfillment of Course Objective 4, you will discuss a literary movement in connection with one of our assigned readings.

Select one of the following topics as the focus for your essay:
1.     Discuss one work or one author from this course that you believe had the most significant influence on British literary history. Please be sure to maintain third-person perspective.

2.     In this course, we have discussed British literary history and the progression of trends in British literature. Give a brief description of one of the trends we have discussed in the class, with a brief explanation of the characteristics of the trend. You may want to touch on the social, political, historical or cultural issues that influenced this trend. Then provide at least one example of a piece of British literature we have read in this course from this period with a well-developed analysis identifying why the selected piece is a good representation of the trend. Note: “Modernism” and “the Romantic period” are examples of what is meant by a “literary trend” in this question.

3.     Choose a work of British literature we read in the course. Write a response in which you present arguments for and against the work’s relevance for a person or society in the present day.

Submission Instructions: Please be sure to submit your assignment to the assignment section of the course.

Western Australian Excursions: Off School Site Activities Policy

EDP120 Introduction to Teaching WA Excursion Policy: Off school site activities document analysis This intention of this report is to analyse the Western Australian (WA) Excursions: Off school site activities policy document and discuss action plans for three potential scenarios. Effective 1 July 2003, (Western Australian Department of Education, (WA DoE), 2003) the rationale behind the policy is to set out and provide principals, teachers, and supervisors from both government and privately run schools with consistent, comprehensive standards and expectations whilst being off school grounds.
The WA school excursion policy, written by the Western Australian Department of Education recognises that a well planned, properly managed and curriculum aligned off site school excursion can contribute to the educational benefits for a student. (WA DoE, 2003, p. 4 2. 1) With an excursion not being a regular occurrence in a school year, and therefore a variation to the routine of a typical school day. It is essential to note that with any variation to a routine and environment, that there is an increase in the potential of risks and hazards. WA DoE, 2003, p. 4 2. 1) Especially, when students are in the public arena and the actions of others cannot be determined. In addition, schools have a moral obligation to provide a ‘duty of care’ to their students on and offsite school grounds. The care provided by the teacher/s-in-charge essentially needs to be increased in relation to these newfound potential risks. (Department of Education, Training, and Employment, (DETE), 2013) Hence, the importance of using such a policy in today’s teaching environment.
With the education and safety of students being paramount, schools are bound by common law to protect students, teachers, and others. (DETE, 2013). It is therefore not only health and safety concerns of students’, but a legal requirement to demonstrate that an excursion’s are planned efficiently, managed and risk assessed. (Tronc, K. 2004) In the event of an emergency, effective planning minimises the risk of confusion and empowers teachers to make informed decisions.

Furthermore, by adhering to the key points in the WA school excursion policy, the school is thus reducing the chances of a costly and lengthy litigation if a court deems that the school has not breached its duties. (Tronc, K. 2004). Key points of the policy include information on assessing risks in relation to; the environment of the excursion, transportation of participants, a students’ capacity; in relation to health, skill level and cultural requirements, establishing the skills of the supervisor/supervisory team and competency levels of involvement by external providers.
The policy then provides guidelines on; establishing supervision strategies, providing information and seeking consent from parents, developing communication strategies, emergency response planning, briefing students and supervisors, records that need to be retained, gaining approvals for excursions; whether it be interstate or international and then makes note on privately arranged activities. Scenario One The parents of a student are experiencing financial difficulties and cannot afford to pay for their child to participate in the excursion.
Whilst the policy does not give advise pertaining to financial hardship, the policy does clearly state, “Where financial hardship is understood to be the reason for a student’s non-participation, schools should endeavour to provide financial assistance”. (WA DoE, 2003, p. 11) It would be fair however to assume, that before an excursion is planned that the related costs would have already been deemed as reasonable and affordable and approved by the principal to allow students to participate. (NSW Government, Education & Communities, 2009).
Hence, it would stand to reason that if a parent was under financial burden due to the excursion, then the appropriate course of action would be to discuss their given situation with the principal to obtain available financial assistance. The issues with the policy regarding financial assistance is that there are no formal guidelines as to determining eligibility requirements, nor as to how much assistance should be provided and what would indeed be deemed financial hardship in the policy. Based on this lack of guidance it would be reasonable to expect that the principal would determine the assistance level based on the severity of hardship.
However, the foreseeable issue with this is that parents/guardians could place undue burden back on the school for ongoing assistance or indeed take advantage of the funding available. Interestingly to note The ACT Government provides information on their information portal website regarding financial assistance for families and they determine low income status by photocopying a government issued health care card or Centrelink card as these are means tested. (ACT Government, Education and Training Directorate, 2013, para. 7) Scenario Two
A student is injured during a class excursion to the museum. The student is under the care of a parent helper and requires medical assistance. Assuming that the excursion does not require an overnight stay and the parent teacher has been given the relevant approvals by the principal and/or teacher-in-charge (WA DoE, 2003 p. 14, 3. 10. 1). The teacher-in-charge would have already deemed that the parent helper has a working with children check or completed a Confidential Declaration, has the skills to perform a supervisory role and to manage an emergency should one arise. (WA DoE, 2003, p. 8, 3. 2. ) Prior to the commencement of the excursion a risk assessment and management plan would have been arranged and discussed in some detail with the staff and education officer at the museum. At the point of being alerted to the injury the supervisor would signal to the group of students the emergency signal that was communicated and practiced prior to arriving at the museum. (WA DoE, 2003, p. 12, 3. 6). Being that the museum has recommended student to supervisor ratio’s and does not offer supervision whilst on the excursions (Western Australian Museum, Government of Western Australia, 2013b, p. ) the parent helper will not be able to leave the students alone to seek medical attention as this would be negligent to the other students being left unsupervised. The museum according to their excursion essentials information booklet expects the teacher-in-charge to bring their own first aid supplies. (Western Australian Museum, Government of Western Australia, 2013a, p. 4) Depending on the nature of the injury the parent helper or teacher-in-charge would administer basic first aid and if possible with the assistance and/or guidance of the museums Senior First Aid trained Visitor Service Officer. Western Australian Museum, Government of Western Australia, 2013b, p. 3) If urgent medical attention should be required, it would be at the discretion of the trained first aid officer and/or parent/guardian once notified and medical appointments would be at the discretion of the parent/guardian as costs associated with the accident are the parent/guardians responsibility WA DoE, 2003, p. 25, Appendix E). During this time, the parent helper would have had access to the management plan that also includes student health forms and student emergency contact information, (WA DoE, 2003, p. 2, 3. 7) Either the parent helper or the teacher-in-charge would call and advise the parent/guardian and would then contact the principal. Being a museum that is a government owned building, the museum is fully compliant with the public liability insurance requirements (WA DoE. Page 9, 3. 2. 5, 2003). Scenario Three Three students miss the bus for their class excursion. The school principal asks you a (teacher) to transport the three students to the excursion using your private vehicle.
As part of the ‘duty of care’ of students, it is reasonable for a teacher to transport students in the event that they miss the bus for an excurison. However, according to the policy document guidelines “Private vehicles should only be used when there is no other option. ” (WA DoE, 2003 p. 7, 3. 2. 2) As the principal has asked you, as a teacher to transport the students it would be fair to determine that all other avenues had been previously exhausted. It should also be noted, that it would not be reasonable to assume that a student could make their own way to the excursion without being at risk of injury or danger.
The duty of care for a student is not limited to the school grounds and may require a higher level of duty of care than that of a parent’s duty of care. (Association of Independent Schools, (AISSA) 2000) It would be good practice, not necessarily a requirement of the policy to contact the parent/guardian to inform them that the student had missed the bus and to advise them that they would be travelling with a teacher in a private vehicle. The implications of not informing the parent/guardian could be far reaching, as the parent/guardian may not approve the transport by a teacher in a private vehicle.
The teacher-in-charge of the excursion also has a responsibility and could be held liable, to ensure that you the teacher, driving the private vehicle has comprehensive private motor vehicle insurance and the vehicle complies with the Road Traffic Act 1974. (WA DoE. Page 7, 3. 2. 2, 2003) Conclusion In conclusion, all schools have a ‘duty of care’ to the teachers, students, and others whilst onsite and offsite school grounds. A breach in a ‘duty of care’ can result in a costly and lengthy legal negligence case.
Hence, all teachers that supervise students have a moral and legal liability to be concerned for the welfare and safety of students. By adhering to the policy guidelines, this allows for a consistent approach to the welfare and safety of participants whilst on excursions. Furthermore, completing risk assessments and management plans, allows teachers to be empowered and to assess potential risks and avoid foreseeable and avoidable injuries. References ACT Government, Education and Training Directorate. (2013) Financial Assistance for families. Retrieved from http://www. det. act. gov. u/school_education/starting_school/financial_assistance_for_families Association of Independent Schools. (AISSA) (2000). Year 2000 Ncisa Conference, The duty of care of schools. Retrieved from http://www. ais. sa. edu. au/resources/Duty%20of%20Care%20of%20Schools. pdf Department of Education, Training and Employment (DETE). (2013). School Excursions. Queensland: Queensland Government. Retrieved from http://ppr. det. qld. gov. au/education/management/Pages/School-Excursions. aspx NSW Government, Education & Communities. (2009) Excursions Policy Implementation Procedures. New South Wales. NSW Government.
Retrieved from https://www. det. nsw. edu. au/policies/student_admin/excursions/excursion_pol/implementation_1_PD20040010. shtml? query=excursions Pack N Go Educational Tourism. (2011) Why school should have education trips? Retrieved from http://www. educationaltourism. org/why-us. html Tronc, K. (2004). “Schools and the law: closing the rhetoric and reality gap. ” The Practising Administrator. Vol. 26, no. 1, p. 22-24. Western Australian Museum, Government of Western Australia (2013a) Excursion Essentials. Retrieved from http://museum. wa. gov. au/explore/education/perth/excursion-essentials
Western Australian Museum, Government of Western Australia (2013b) Excursion Management Plan 2013 – Western Australian Museum – Perth. Retrieved from http://museum. wa. gov. au/explore/education/perth/excursion-management-plan-2013-western-australian-museum-perth Western Australian Department of Education (WA DoE). (2003). Excursions: off school site activities. Western Australia: Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www. det. wa. edu. au/policies/detcms/policy-planning-and-accountability/policies-framework/policies/excursions-off-school-site-activities. en? oid=au. edu. wa. det. cms. contenttypes. Policy-id-11684723

Supply and Demand- a Case Study Milk Price

The market supply and demand curve above shows the milk price support problem. In order to solve the milk surpluses in the market, the government should take the steps to increase the market demand to the milk products by exploring overseas markets. For instance, the government should export milk surpluses abroad. This would cut the cost of storage for milk products and encourages the local dairy farmers to continue in the dairy business.

a. The small dairy farmers would prefer proposal 4 because it benefits them the most through the buyout program. This program encourages small dairy farmers to switch from dairy business to another business. The rewards from the government can be used as capital to start a new business.

b. For consumers, they would prefer the proposal

Since the consumers are also the taxpayers, the dairy price support program is very costing to taxpayers. By eliminating the price support program, the consumers can enjoy the lower price of milk, and the taxes to purchase unsold milk products can use to support other domestics goods that would be more benefits the consumers. The member of Congress who is concern about the welfare of the community will look with favor on the proposal. Since they investigated that the market for milk is a competitive market. Without government intervention, the market equilibrium price for milk is set by market demand and supply. For the benefits of consumers and taxpayers, they would enjoy a lower milk price than the price floor. The problem of the farmers can be solved by increase the demand for dairy products, such as exports milk surpluses abroad and promote the local brand of milk products to consumers.
Question 2
Hence, the Transit Authority’s revenue increases as the fare rise. From the estimation, the demand for subway rides is inelastic in the short run. The estimation might be unreliable because the data gathered is only the first month after the fare rises. After a longer period, the riders may choose not to use the subway and find another way of transportation which is more economical to them. The switch of riders to substitute way of transportation means the quantity demanded subway decreases. So, when the fare rises, the quantity demanded declines gradually, the price elasticity of demand would be higher and more elastic. As a clever entrepreneur, it is important to measure how much the quantity demanded of a good response to changes in the consumer’s income. During the prosperity periods, the consumer’s income is higher, they would demand normal goods and less demand for inferior goods. In periods of depression, the consumer’s income decreases lead to an increase of quantity demanded inferior goods because their purchasing power is low. If the entrepreneur understands that inferior goods have negative income elasticity, he would probably switch his business to sell inferior goods. For example, a used-car seller might sell branded luxury cars during prosperity periods. However, during depression periods, he might switch to sell low-cost cars in order to sustain his business. In conclusion, the statement is valid.
Question 3
Diminishing returns to a single factor are observable in all production processes at some level of inputs. The ‘law of diminishing marginal productivity’ is defined as the marginal product of an input is the additional output generated by employing one more unit of the input, all other inputs held fixed. The extra output, or returns, to the single input, diminishes because all other inputs are held fixed. One of the factors is capital. For example, as the stock of capital rises, the extra output produced from an additional capital falls. Returns to scale are different from the returns to a single factor. Returns to scale are proportional increases in all inputs. While each factor in the production process generates diminishing returns, the output may more than double, less than double, or exactly double when all the inputs are doubled. The distinction again is that with returns to scale, all inputs are increased in the same proportion and no input is held fixed.
In filling a vacant position, we should be concerned with the marginal product of the last worker hired because the marginal product measures the effect on output, or total product, of hiring another worker. It helps us to determine the revenue generated by hiring another worker and compared it to the cost of hiring another worker. This comparison shows that whether the hiring would help to increase the production. The point at which the average product begins to decline is the point where the average product is equal to the marginal product. Although adding more workers results in a further decline in the average product, the total production continues to increase, so it may still be advantageous to hire another worker. When the average product declines, the marginal product of the last worker hired is lower than the average product of previously hired workers. c. The isoquant identifies all the combinations of the two inputs which can produce the same level of output. The curvature of the isoquant is measured by the slope of the isoquant at any given point. The slope of the isoquant measures the rate at which the two inputs can be exchanged and still keep output constant, and this rate is called the marginal rate of technical substitution. Along the typical “bowed-in” or convex isoquant, the marginal rate of technical substitution diminishes as you move down along the isoquant.
Question 4
To find the equilibrium price and quantity,
Qd=Qs 100-5P=5P 10P=100 P=10 When P = 10, Q=5P Q=510 Q=5 

Smith, 2007. (Accessed: 16 July 2011) Which. Edu. 2010. (Accessed: 16 July 2011) Mankiw, N. Gregory. (2007).
Principles of Economics, 4th Edition. USA: Thomson South-Western. pp97-99, 559-562

Planning and enabling learning

Rationale The following is research that I carried out Is relating to four mall points. The first being Negotiating with learners, when we first meet with a learner we conduct an Minimal assessment and a on line test for functional skills, this allows us to check on previous learning and any under planning knowledge they already have, thus allowing us to make sure the learning will be set at the right level for that particular learner.
When we are sure we know this we can discuss with the learner what targets we are going to set them, this would Include goals and actions we want them to reach, we want the learner to achieve so would make the targets SMART so they are achievable to the leaner, in turn this would help to keep the learner motivated in the learning environment. Having started with the internet I looked at various sites detailing the reasoning and methods of negotiating with learners in respect of initial assessments and agreeing goals and actions.
During my research I found a site detailing how negotiating with learners has changed over time in regards to higher education. This can, however, be considered for other areas of education. The website (www. Hacked. AC. UK) looks at a publication by Mac McCarthy for ‘Higher Education for Capability. (Originally from Lack et al 1992) Within in this it is considered how learning contracts are used.

McCarthy considers the factors affecting negotiating with learners and believes the ability to negotiate is affected by: * the established view of education within an organization the established view of how the organization operates * personal factors which influence the extent to which the teacher feels comfortable negotiating with learners * the demands of the course which defines the limits of what can be negotiated and to what extent. Inclusive learning Is the next subject for research one that I conducted a micro teach for, this Is a huge subject area that I will try to condense Into a few words.
Delivery methods I consider these to be valid and Interesting points but wanted to discover more ethos of negotiation, I therefore looked towards the Learning Skills Council for further information regarding the starting point of initial assessment. Wanting to gather more information on methods and reasoning for initial assessment I discovered a useful publication from them (Initial assessment, Learning Skills council. They state that a good initial assessment must be done early on Planning and enabling learning By precociousness’s STALLS Assignment Unit 2 Jerry Tyler.
The following is research that I carried out is relating to four main points. The first initial assessment and a on line test for functional skills, this allows us to check on previous learning and any under pinning knowledge they already have, thus allowing going to set them, this would include goals and actions we want them to reach, we what can be negotiated and to what extent. Inclusive learning is the next subject for research one that I conducted a micro teach for, this is a huge subject area that I will try to condense into a few words. Delivery methods I consider these to be valid and interesting points but wanted to discover more

Individual Assignment: Henrietta Lacks and Health Care Leadership

During Skloot and Deborah’s meeting with Christoph Lengauer, Lengauer emphasizes the importance of Henrietta Lacks’s contribution to science and how she is remembered in the medical community. Langauer states, “Whenever we read books about science, it’s always HeLa this and HeLa that. Some people know those are the initials of a person, but they don’t know who that person is. That’s important history.”

Write a 525- to 700-word article that addresses the following:

Evaluate whether the book effectively illustrates the significance of Henrietta Lacks’s life, her contributions to science, and their impact on her family. Answer the following questions in your evaluation:
Are there problematic elements as to how Skloot portrays Lacks and her family?
Do you agree with Lengauer’s quote that it is important to know about Henrietta Lacks? Why or why not?
Explain how learning about Henrietta Lacks’s story helped you become a more ethical leader.
Provide 2 to 3 examples of what medical professionals can do to prevent unethical practices.

Use 3 examples from the book to support your response and cite the novel.

Include a citation of your article in your assignment.

He is a innovator applied scientist in the development of electric propulsion systems since the 1980 ‘s with Tetra Energy Inc.

Oliver brings 28years of extended research and merchandise development background

2009 ) .The sample selected should be a representation of the population of involvement based on the gender

age and socio-economic group ( Matthews and Ross