Influence to Hong Kong as an International Logistics Hub

[pic] Influence to Hong Kong as an international logistics hub – under the “Framework Agreement on Hong Kong and Guangdong Co-operation” | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Influence to Hong Kong as an international logistics hub – under the “Framework Agreement on Hong Kong nd Guangdong Co-operation” cvnru1ulicenen6. iewst4d)0/su18. 4h06k244-055322175 (on ABSTRACT On 7 April 2010, The Chief Executive, Mr Donald Tsang, and the Governor of Guangdong Province, Mr Huang Huahua, signed the Framework Agreement on Hong Kong and Guangdong Co-operation. The Framework Agreement builds on years of closely co-operation between Hong Kong and Guangdong. This report reviews the development of Co-operation Agreement between Guangdong and Hong Kong and the implementation of Hong Kong’s logistics industry based on the agreement.
To fully understand this Framework Agreement, we explore the challenges confronting Hong Kong as an international logistic hub and eventually acquire some benefits through the co-operation of Hong Kong and Guangdong. REVIEW THE DEVELOPMENT OF CO-OPERATION AGREEMENT BETWEEN PEARL RIVER DELTA AND HONG KONG The Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement – CEPA (signed on June 2003) CEPA introduced liberalization measures for various “Hong Kong service suppliers”.
Logistics industry is one of the “Hong Kong service suppliers” and recognized to set up wholly-owned enterprises in mainland to provide logistics, international freight forwarding, storage, warehousing, road transport and shipping services. This arrangement not only provided opportunities to Hong Kong logistics companies to access mainland market but also liberated trade in goods and trade in services between mainland and Hong Kong.

Pan-Pearl River Delta Regional Co-operation Framework Agreement (signed on June 2004) The Pearl River Delta region(PRD), as known as “9+2”, which includes Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Hainan, Hunan, Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Hong Kong and Macau. Under this agreement, the Pearl River Delta region cooperated closely and intensively in infrastructure, trade, industry, investment and other areas. Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau have entered a new stage of economic integration. Pan-Pearl River Delta Logistics Development Co-operation Agreement (signed on July 2005) Logistics industry acts as an important role in economic development.
This agreement aimed to strengthen the coordination on logistics planning; logistics and transport system; logistics information system and human resources development and technological innovation. It was a remarkable stage of model logistics development in PRD. Framework Agreement on Hong Kong and Guangdong Co-operation (signed on July 2010) To continue the implementation of CEPA, the Framework Agreement on Hong Kong and Guangdong Co-operation clearly defined the social economic development between Hong Kong and Guangdong.
It enhanced Hong Kong’s position as an international financial centre and expedited the development of financial services industries in Guangdong; it also facilitated the flow of key factors such as people, goods, information and capital across the boundary to build an international aviation, shipping and logistics hub and a world-class modern economic circulation sphere. A series of environmental protection plans have been carried out to create a high quality living area among the PRD.
CO-OPERATION INITIATIVES ON CUSTOMS CLEARANCE OF GOODS The Framework Agreement on Hong Kong and Guangdong Co-operation has included infrastructure projects to enhance logistics development and communication and cross-boundary development. To achieve the facilitation of the flow of goods across the boundary, Hong Kong and Guangdong have put forward a number of specific policies and measures. Hong Kong Government advocated the standardization of the information and data required by the customs of the mainland.
Hong Kong first launched the electronic Road Cargo System (ROCARS) in May 2010 to enable seamless clearance of road cargoes. With this new electronic information platform and building on the foundation of mutual co-operation and benefit, Hong Kong and Mainland Customs are able to make further contribution to enhance customs clearance efficiency and facilitate cross-boundary movement of goods. Road Cargo System (ROCARS) The present customs clearance arrangement at land boundary control points (LBCP), a truck driver has to stop first at an Immigration kiosk and then a Customs kiosk.
He delivers a paper manifest which contains relevant cargo information at the latter to a Customs officer who determines on the spot whether physical inspection is necessary. It needs to wait for a moment until it is approved by the Customs. ROCARS allows Customs Officers to perform risk profiling before a truck arrives at LBCP. A shipper or agent needs to provide cargo data in eight fields to the Customs and Excise Department (C&ED) electronically before the cargo enters or exits Hong Kong by truck. Meanwhile, the shipper or agent receives a customs reference number for his consignment.
The driver of a laden truck needs to report to C&ED within 30 minutes before his truck arriving LBCP, together with the customs reference number of the consignment concerned received from the shipper and his vehicle registration number. If it is not selected by the Customs, no physical inspection is required. Benefits of ROCARS ROCARS allows the Customs officers conduct risk profiling on every cargo consignment in advance and determine whether a truck needs to be inspected. All cross-boundary trucks, except those are selected for inspection, they enjoy seamless customs clearance at the land boundary.
It increases the efficiency and shortens the time for customs clearance of road cargoes; it also ensures a smooth flow of land boundary traffic. For the transportation and logistics industry, many truck drivers deliver a loaded container from China factory via Hong Kong and the goods are to be transshipped overseas by liner vessel. ROCARS can enhance speedy and secure movement of cargoes between Hong Kong and China. As a result, cargoes can be delivered on time to liner vessel stably and reliable. It encourages the development of Hong Kong as an international logistics hub.
COLLABORATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY To facilitate information flow and service integration towards Hong Kong and Mainland, Hong Kong started to develop and operate the Digital Trade and Transportation Network (DTTN) on 2005. The aim of DTTN is to lower the barriers for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to enjoy e-commerce; it provides Hong Kong and the PRD with an e-infrastructure to secure the region’s place as a leading international logistics hub. Digital Trade and Transportation Network (DTTN)
DTTN is an e-platform to connect the organizations in trading, logistics and financial industries and to enable them to exchange business documents electronically with their trading partners. It supports the whole supply chains, including Sellers and Buyers, Carriers, Freight Forwarders, Terminals, Government and Agencies, Inspection Agencies, Insurance Institutions and Banking Institutions; it provides a wide range of services on message routing and transformation, data inheritance, statistical and analytical reporting.
Over 80 major documents such as Purchase or Sales order, Packing list, Shipping order, House waybill, Customs clearance or Letter of Credit…etc can be supported by DTTN service which facilitates the information flow and service integration on trading, logistics, finance, import and export businesses. Benefits of DTTN DTTN enables new business opportunities for logistic service providers to provide value-add services; Hong Kong logistics industry can compete as premium service leader on high quality value-added services rather than merely competing on cost.
Logistics information flow is one of the key factors for the companies to achieve success. DTTN help to maximize the benefits of e-logistics by utilizing a cost effective infrastructure. It is a neutral, secure and reliable e-platform for trading and logistics communities which can smooth the whole international logistics operation and improve our competitiveness. It further promotes regional integration and enhances the supply-chain efficiency. IMPLEMENTATION OF INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS
With an excellent infrastructure and telecommunications facilities, a well established financial and legal system, a good international connections and a free market for trading. Hong Kong enjoys a number of competitive advantages in developing logistic industry. Facing the rapid growth of logistics development in Guangdong province, to strengthen Hong Kong’s position as an international logistic hub, HKSAR Government is urged to develop a closer corporation between Hong Kong and PRD.
The Framework Agreement on Hong Kong and Guangdong Co-operation which specified several policies on expediting the construction of cross-boundary highway, rail links and ancillary works; building a high class navigation network in PRD; improving the mechanism of the five major airports in the PDR; proactively seeking national support for enlarging the air space in the PDR; supporting the aviation status of each airport, building a network of short-haul helicopter services in the PRD. Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (HZMB)
The HMZB project connects Hong Kong, Macau and the major cities in PRD, there will be a loop of high speed linkage among Zhuhai, Guangzhou, Dongguan, Guangxi, Hainan and other south western part of mainland. (Figure 1. ) [pic] Figure 1: Retrieved from Highway Department http://www. nzcchk. com/IBC%202009%2014%20-%20Hong%20Kong%20Zuhai%20Macau%20Bridge%20Project. pdf It consists of three sections (Figure 2). The western section is a link road within Zhuhai and the Zhuhai-Macao Boundary Crossing Facilities (ZMBCF). The
Zhuhai Link Road will connect ZMBCF to the inland area of Zhuhai. The middle section is the HZMB Main Bridge. [pic] Figure 2: Retrieved from Highway Department http://www. nzcchk. com/IBC%202009%2014%20-%20Hong%20Kong%20Zuhai%20Macau%20Bridge%20Project. pdf The eastern section is within Hong Kong, there will be a Hong Kong Link Road (HKLR) to connect the HZMB Main Bridge to the Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities (HKBCF). Meanwhile, the tunnel of HKLR will also connect Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) to the HKBCF.
HKBCF will serve as a strategic multi-model transportation hub, HKBCF will include construction cargo and passenger related facilities, public transport interchange, open road tolling system and some Government buildings will be set up in there. It is believed that the HMZB will bring more road haulage service between Hong Kong and mainland, in connection with the bridge, a highway is to be built to connect Tuen Mun and Chek Lap Lok( TMCLK Link and the Tuen Mun Western Bypass) in order to meet the traffic demand between Northwest New Territories (NWNT) and North Lantau via HKBCF. (Figure 3) [pic]
Figure 3: Retrieved from Highway Department http://www. nzcchk. com/IBC%202009%2014%20-%20Hong%20Kong%20Zuhai%20Macau%20Bridge%20Project. pdf Impacts of the HZMB The journey between Hong Kong and the Western PRD can be shortened to within three hours, it will take around 30mins from Zhuhai to Hong Kong International Airport which will significantly reduce the cost and time for passenger and good flow between Hong Kong and the Western PRD. In addition, the HZMB will bring tremendous benefit to Hong Kong, the Mainland and Macao in the areas of economic development, tourism, finance, logistics and ultural exchange. Hong Kong’s logistics industry will not only be able to get more business in the PRD but also extend their services into the inland area of the Mainland including the resource-rich Sichuan Province. Hence, it further enhances Hong Kong’s status as an international transportation and aviation hub. Hong Kong-Shenzhen Western Express Line (WEL) To promote the development of Qianhai and NWNT and enhance the co-operation between the two airports in Hong Kong and Shenzhen, there will be a cross boundary railway, WEL, to connect the western part of Hong Kong and Shenzhen, including the two airports.
From now the mainland destinations of HKIA mainly are the mainland cities far away from Hong Kong such as Shanghai and Beijing. Facing the rapid economic development in Mainland, the demand for domestic flights will continue to increase; there will be the same demand of international flights of international transit flight via Hong Kong. It is believed that WEL helps to connect the two airports between Hong Kong and Shenzhen, it will help the two cities in achieving a win-win situation by complementing each other and enhancing competitiveness. Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link (XRL)
To expedite the construction of various cross-boundary transport infrastructures between Hong Kong and Mainland, XRL will connect Hong Kong with the Mainland’s national high-speed railway network which will significantly reduce the journey time. XRL is an express rail to link up Hong Kong with Guangzhou via Futian and Longhua in Shenzhen and Humen in Dongguan. The terminus in Guangzhou will be located at Shibi, which is the centre of the Guangzhou-Foshan metropolitan area. The Mainland section of XRL will start from Shibi and enter Hong Kong via Huanggang. (figure 4) [pic] Figure 4: Retrieved from Legislative Council brief http://legco. gov. k/yr09-10/english/panels/tp/tp_rdp/papers/tp_rdp1022-thb200910a-e. pdf The Hong Kong Section is started from Huangguan, there will be an underground railway running from Huanggang to West Kowloon Terminus at the West Kowloon District, and between the Airport Express Kowloon Station and the West Rail Austin Station. [pic] Figure 5: Retrieved from Legislative Council brief http://legco. gov. hk/yr07-08/english/panels/tp/tp_rdp/papers/tp_rdp-thbtcr11658199-e. pdf Impacts of the XRL XRL is vitally important to Hong Kong. It will connect Hong Kong with the Mainland’s national high-speed railway network and significantly reduce the journey time.
A trip between Hong Kong and Shibi on the XRL will only take 48 minutes, to Wuhan in five hours, and to Shanghai and Beijing in about eight and 10 hours respectively. The XRL will terminate at the New Guangzhou Passenger Terminus at Shibi in Guangzhou. Shibi, together with the stations at Beijing, Shanghai and Wuhan, are designated as the four major national railway passenger hubs of the Mainland. The Terminus is planned to become a mega transport hub. Hence, XRL will help reinforce Hong Kong’s status as a transport, financial and commercial hub of China.
It will support the sustained growth of our four traditional economic pillars – Financial services, tourism, logistics, business support and professional services. CONSOLIDATING HONG KONG’S DEVELOPMENT AS AN INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING AND LOGISTICS CENTRE Positioning of Hong Kong International Airport(HKIA) HKIA is the word’s busiest cargo airport, it has handled a record high of 4. 13 million tonnes of cargo in 2010. To meet the anticipated growth in demand, a new air cargo terminal is being constructed and is expected to commence operation in early 2013; the cargo-handling capacity will be increased.
In long term, building a third runway is necessary to meet the forecast growth of passenger and cargo handling up to 2030. It will maintain the competitive edge of Hong Kong as an international and regional aviation centre. In view of increasing aircraft movements in PRD region, air routes and airspace open for civil aviation are insufficient, flights on many air routes have to make an additional detour or fly to a certain flight level to ensure safety, it increased the flight time and flight delay in Mainland is always happened from time to time.
To meet the aviation development needs and strengthen the economies between Hong Kong and Mainland, HKSAR government has to formulate a development plan for future air spaces capacity of the HKIA as well as the positioning of HKIA in accordance with its function as mentioned in the Framework Agreement to avoid the traffic congestion in the airspace over the PRD region. Measures to enhance the maritime port’s competitiveness To reinforce Hong Kong’s position as a renowned international maritime centre and it is believed that a well established international business and maritime network is necessary.
With regard to port expansion, HKSAR Government is looking for the right location for Container Terminal 10, which may be required as early as 2015. It will be other local transportation projects to shorten the travelling time of goods and commuters within the territory. The Hong Kong Shipping Register is the first-rate service offered by the Hong Kong maritime cluster. To maintain the reputation of the Hong Kong Shipping Register, the Hong Kong Marine Department will work closely with the industry to enhance the standards of Hong Kong ships and increase the competitiveness of the Register.
Such as providing e-services for expanding one-stop shop services for ship registration, strengthening pre-registration quality control and enhancing coordination with the relevant Mainland authorities to offer better protection for Hong Kong ships. Hong Kong can also provide higher value-added services like maritime insurance, ship financing, international arbitration and logistic management to form a stronger industrial cluster.
POSITIONING HONG KONG AND GUANGDONG AS A MODERN ECONIMIC CIRCULATION SPHERE To reinforce Hong Kong’s position as a logistics and maritime centre, Hong Kong needs to have first-class infrastructure facilities in parallel with hard infrastructure development. Banking and Bond Business The Framework Agreement deepens the Hong Kong’s RMB trade settlement and finance businesses at local level. It provides a best platform for Mainland authorities and Hong Kong Monetary Authority to jointly discuss and investigate how to expedite the application of RMB outside the China and continuously improve the RMB trade settlement services.
It also facilitates the bond services, the qualified Guangdong financial organizations and companies can issue RMB bonds in Hong Kong. This approach creates many different financial channels to both sides and supports the development of Hong Kong’s RMB bond services simultaneously. Securities Services For securities business, the Framework Agreement pushes forward connection and mutual co-operation in respect of talents, knowledge, products, and institutions between both sides.
In addition, more Guangdong financial organizations and companies are encouraged to raise funds in Hong Kong and to be Hong Kong listed companies. In order to strengthen the collaboration of securities services between Hong Kong and Guangdong, the supplement VI of Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA) was signed in 2009 which permitted securities organizations in Mainland and Hong Kong to establish securities investment consultancies in joint venture mode. Insurance Services
With the support of Framework Agreement, the qualified Hong Kong financial organizations can set up legal institutions with insurance services in Guangdong and this facilitates Hong Kong insurance organizations to develop business in Mainland by lowering the entry requirements of Mainland insurance market. The supplement IV of CEPA helps Hong Kong insurance agents to set up wholly-owned companies in Mainland. The collaboration of China Insurance Regulatory Commission and Office of the Commissioner of Insurance in Hong Kong can continuously be increased.
Developing international logistics hub in Hong Kong and PRD region The Framework Agreement helps the development of financial logistics service in Hong Kong by integrating supply, production and sales and formed the financial supply chain system. It was the revolution of third-party logistics services in Hong Kong. Financial logistics service has became gradually popular that combined with logistics and financial products. The ability of third-party logistics services and operating profit has been improved; logistic companies can expand financing channels, reduce financing costs and improve capital management efficiency.
The new third-party logistics service definitely drives toward the goal of win-win supply chain. Logistics companies can activate occupied costs of idle raw materials and finished products for optimizing companies’ resources. The provision of financial logistics service can enhance companies’ integrated logistics services and competitiveness; it further increases the business scale as well as the value-added services. The enhanced financial costing and broad financing channels reduce the capital utilization of raw materials and semi-finished products.
Moreover, the optimal capital allocation can reduce the procurement costs, expand sales volume and increase the companies’ sales profits. For further support, financial logistics services help companies to expand the size of loans for smoothing the cash flow, reduce credit risk and support the disposal of bad assets. The combination of logistics services and financial services which provides an integrated supply chain financial plan, it also increases the competitive advantage and profits.
Through the financial logistic services, the warehouse logistic companies can achieve multilateral success; enhance customers’ capital capability and responsiveness to market risk. It encourages customers to deal with the warehouse goods processing and facilitates the interactive information sharing of goods, large amount of goods storage and high goods turnover rate. The diversified payment methods can maximize customers’ capital settlement. Therefore, customers’ pressure on accounts receivable can be reduced.
With the connection of logistics and insurance industries, it provides a comprehensive logistics insurance service for all supply chain activities and items. It includes equipment damage, goods delivery, property and facilities, operation safety of trucks and other means of transport, and employee insurance, etc. Through the enhanced financial services, increased financial channels and the supports of Mainland banks and insurance companies, the logistics industry in Hong Kong obtains abundant resources to develop the financial logistics services, logistics routes and business in Mainland.
Foreign enterprises also can take Hong Kong and Guangdong as a platform to invest in mainland market, in returns, Hong Kong acts as a bridgehead for Mainland enterprises to “go global” and establishes their head office in Hong Kong and promotes their business to global markets. CONCLUSION Hong Kong is the gateway of China and positioned in the heart of Asia; we can reach all major Asian countries within four hours and half of the world’s population within five hours by plane.
However, facing the changes of global economic structure and the worldwide trend of forming a regional economic co-operation and competition, it is difficult for an individual city to compete at its own. As such Hong Kong has to strengthen itself by co-operating with Mainland, particularly PRD region in Guangdong, to search for larger market hinterland so as to maintain its long term competitiveness. Under the outline of the Framework Agreement on Hong Kong Guangdong Co-operation, Hong Kong has to work towards betterment by consolidating innovation into its existing pillar industries, including finance, trading, shipping and logistics.
To enhance our competitiveness, Hong Kong has continued investing in key infrastructure projects to maintain an efficient multi-modal transport network which covering air, land and sea to meet the different needs. Major infrastructure projects like HZMB, XRL and WEL, which materialize the “one-hour intercity circle” for people in PRD region and enforce a sound regional system of marine, land and air transport integration within this region. To facilitate the logistic flow and customs procedures, ROCARS has been introduced on the customs clearance.
Some other recommendations on customs procedures can be considered in future, for instance, a mutual recognition of the examination results of cross-boundary vehicles, relaxation of the restrictions on Hong Kong trucks with valid licenses to travel in Mainland, as well as a centralized electronic communication platform on other control points to shorten the customs clearance time. In parallel with hard infrastructure development, Hong Kong should continue to develop the required software, particularly in the expansion of our aviation network, nurturing fresh talent and IT development.
Hong Kong should make use the advantage of legal system and professional service, an extensive shipping and aviation network so as to provide a high value-added logistic services like pick-and pack and inventory management services. We believe that maintaining a closely correlation between Hong Kong’s hard and soft infrastructure is one of the factors to sustain our economic growth and prosperity. To further reinforce Hong Kong’s position as an international logistic hub and a gateway for Asia to access global markets, we have to tie with the co-operation and development of mainland.
Last but not lease, we do believe we shall always empower ourselves to meet the great challenges and proactively identify new engines of economic growth of Hong Kong. References Trade and Industry Department “Supplement to the Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement” Retrieved 27 Sept, 2011 from http://www. tid. gov. hk/english/cepa/legaltext/cepa2. html Trade and Industry Department “The CEPA benefits Hong Kong economy, January 5, 2006” Retrieved 27 Sept, 2011 from http://www. tid. gov. hk/english/aboutus/presspeech/press/2006/20060105. html
Customs and Excise Department – Road Cargo System (ROCARS) https://www. rocars. gov. hk/en/landing_page. html Digital Trade and Transportation Network http://www. hk-dttn. com/home/english/home. html Digital Trade and Transportation Network (2005) ”Tradelink announces agreements with the HKSAR Government on the Digital Trade & Transportation Network (DTTN)” Retrieved 26 Sept, 2011 from http://www. hk-dttn. com/events/english/050901_Agreements_DTTN_E. pdf Digital Trade and Transportation Network (2006) “Microsoft and DTTNCo Join Hands to Enhance Supply Chain Efficiency in Hong Kong” Retrieved 26 Sept 2011 from http://www. k-dttn. com/events/english/Microsoft-DTTNCo%20Press%20Release_Eng. pdf Digital Trade and Transportation Network (Nov 2004) “Approach for Digital Trade and Transportation Network (DTTN) Document Structure Development” Retrieved on 26 Sept 2011 from http://www. hk-dttn. com/advisory/english/doc_dev_v0. 2. pdf Hong Kong’s Information Service Department (April 2010), Press Release of “Signing ceremony of Framework Agreement on Hong Kong/Guangdong Co-operation held in Beijing” Retrieved on 27 Sept 2011 from http://www. info. gov. hk/gia/general/201004/07/P201004070113. tm Hong Kong Economic & Trade Office in New York(2010) “Hong Kong, Guangdong sign cooperation pact” Retrieved on 27 Sept 2011 from http://www. hketony. gov. hk/ny/e-newsletter/10mar/CoopPact. htm Transport and Housing Bureau of HKSAR http://www. thb. gov. hk/eng/policy/transport/issues/cbt_3. htm Transport and Housing Bureau (2011), Hon Jeffrey Lam and a written reply by the Secretary for Transport and Housing, Ms Eva Cheng at the Legislative Council meeting, “Logistic industry in Hong Kong“ Retrieved on 28 Sept 2011 from http://www. hb. gov. hk/eng/psp/pressreleases/transport/logistics/2011/201102161. pdf Highways Department (Oct 2009) International Business Committee “Hong Kong – Zhuhai – Macao Bridge” Retrieved on 28 Sept 2011 from http://www. nzcchk. com/IBC%202009%2014%20-%20Hong%20Kong%20Zuhai%20Macau%20Bridge%20Project. pdf Legislative council brief (2010) “Hong Kong Section of Guangzhou – Shenzhen – Hong Kong Express Rail Link ( XRL )” Retrieved on 1 Oct 2011 from http://www. legco. gov. hk/yr09-10/chinese/panels/tp/tp_rdp/papers/tp_rdp1022cb1-166-1-ec. pdf
Legislative council brief (Oct 2009), “Hong Kong section of Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express rail link funding arrangement and Special rehousing package” Retrieved on 1 Oct 2011 from http://legco. gov. hk/yr09-10/english/panels/tp/tp_rdp/papers/tp_rdp1022-thb200910a-e. pdf Legislative council brief (April 2008) “Hong Kong section of Guangzhou – Shenzhen – Hong Kong Express rail link” Retrieved on 1 Oct 2011 from http://legco. gov. hk/yr07-08/english/panels/tp/tp_rdp/papers/tp_rdp-thbtcr11658199-e. pdf Transport and Housing Bureau of HKSAR – XRL ttp://www. thb. gov. hk/eng/policy/transport/issues/cbt_4. htm MTR Corporation Limited http://www. expressraillink. hk/en/database/xrl-in-hk. html Transport and Housing Bureau (May 2011) Speech of the Secretary for Transport and Housing at a shipping community luncheon in Korea. Retrieved on 1 Oct 2011 from http://www. thb. gov. hk/eng/psp/speeches/transport/maritime/2011/201105311. pdf Transport and Housing Bureau (Mar 2011) Secretary for Transport and Housing’s opening remarks (transport policy areas) at LegCo Special Finance Committee Meeting.
Retrieved on 1 Oct 2011 from http://www. thb. gov. hk/eng/psp/speeches/transport/land/2011/201103221. pdf Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau http://www. cmab. gov. hk/en/issues/council. htm Hong Kong Export Credit Insurance Corporation (2010) “Highlights of the Framework Agreement on Hong Kong/Guangdong Co-operation” Retrieved on 6 October 2011 from http://www. hkecic. com/compass/eng/201006/Compass201006_2_RoadtoChina3. pdf Kee, P. & Yoshimatsu, H. (2010), Global movements in the Asia Pacific, 1st edn. World Scientific Publishing Company, US. Luo, Z. (2010), Service Science and Logistics Informatics: Innovative Perspectives, 1st edn. , IGI Global snippet, US. Waters, D. (2010), Global Logistics: New Directions in Supply Chain Management, 6th edn. , Kogan Page Publishers, UK. Legislative Council (2010) ”Legislative Council Panel on Commerce and Industry Framework Agreement on Hong Kong/Guangdong Cooperation” Retrieved on 6 October 2011 from http://www. legco. gov. hk/yr09-10/english/panels/ci/papers/cicb1-1559-1-e. pdf

PHI208 W2 D2 (NEED THIS complete by today @10pm CST)

  
In the Ancient Greek world (the world of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, often regarded as the birthplace of philosophy) a “symposium” was a banquet held after a meal, an “after party” of sorts that usually included drinking, dancing, recitals, and engaging conversations on the topics of the day.
For our purposes in this course, the Symposium discussions will not involve dancing, recitals, or a banquet, but they will provide food for thought on current ethical issues and direct application of the ethical theory discussed in each of these weeks.
It is almost impossible these days to turn on the news or log onto social media without encountering a controversy that cries out for ethical discussion. For these Symposium discussions, your instructor will choose a topic of current ethical interest and a resource associated with it for you to read or watch. Your task is to consider how the ethical theory of the week might be used to examine, understand, or evaluate the issue.
This week, you will consider how utilitarianism applies to a controversy, dilemma, event, or scenario selected by your instructor. It is a chance for you to discuss together the ethical issues and questions that it raises, your own response to those, and whether that aligns with or does not align with a utilitarian approach. The aim is not to simply assert your own view or to denigrate other views, but to identify, evaluate, and discuss the moral reasoning involved in addressing the chosen issue.
Your posts should remain focused on the ethical considerations, and at some point in your contribution you must specifically address the way a utilitarian would approach this issue by explaining and evaluating that approach.
If you have a position, you should strive to provide reasons in defense of that position.
When responding to peers, you should strive to first understand the reasons they are offering before challenging or critiquing those reasons. One good way of doing this is by summarizing their argument before offering a critique or evaluation.
You must post on at least two separate days, must include at least one substantial reply to a peer or to your instructor, and your posts should add up to at least 400 words.
Your instructor may include additional requirements, so be sure to pay attention to the prompt.
This discussion will be assessed on a 10-point scale and is worth 3% of your final grade.
To ensure that your initial post starts its own unique thread, do not reply to this post.  Instead, please click the “Reply” link above this post. 
Please read the description above and/or watch the video explaining the symposium and its requirements.  If you are still unsure about how to proceed with the discussion, please contact your instructor.
This week, we will consider how utilitarianism applies to politics. 
Please read or watch the news media of your choice and discuss the presence of utilitarian reasoning.  If utilitarian reasoning is not present, should it be?  If it is present, is it the right kind of ethical reasoning in that specific political context?
Your approach to this symposium discussion can be a bit more open-ended than the main discussion, remembering that our main goal is to work together to identify the main ethical questions and considerations, evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the reasons for different positions one might hold, and come to a better understanding of utilitarian theory.   

How is my life compared to living in the Dominican Republic?

Living in Jakarta is not that different than living in the Dominican Republic. For example, they both have similar geographic features, weather etc. Most people earn money in the same ways, and the types of homes people live in are probably the same.
The Dominican Republic like Jakarta is situated around the north of the equator, making the weather hot and humid. This also means that both countries get convectional rain (a type of rain cycle, for countries around the equator). Since they are both situated near the equator, they have two main seasons, the rainy season and the dry season.
The Geographic features in Jakarta are very similar to the geographic features in the Dominican Republic. Like Jakarta it has soaring Mountain Ranges and in places vast green fertile land and beautiful beaches. This influences the tourism rate for both of these countries, which means the pollution rate in both countries is very high. Due to this, both these countries are considered third world countries. Both these countries are in the ring of fire, meaning there are lots of volcanic eruptions. This influences people a lot, because they need to know what to do if a volcano explodes!!!

Jakarta and the Dominican Republic, being both very poor countries, suffer from money problems. There are two main communities in these countries. Firstly the rich. These people have big, high up jobs, earn lots of money and live in big houses. The poor have small roadside stalls and live in mud houses and slums. They earn about 2months of the rich persons salary in one year. Both these countries are steadily growing, but help is needed for those who need help. The people who have no arms or legs, people with money issues etc.
The roads in both these countries are of a poor standard. The big main roads have only a small amount of lanes, meaning that people drive on the line, meaning MASSIVE traffic jams. The smaller roads are full of pyholes, which is a massive danger to all motorcyclists, who like cutting the line. It can cause severe injuries or maybe even death. The drainage systems are extremely inefficient! Since these countries are next to the equator (this means they have two main seasons, the rainy season and the dry season) during the rainy season, roads would have floods, meaning people are stuck in traffic jams for 4-5 hours.
The availability of water and electricity come in vast quantities to the rich. For the poor, they get electricity but it will go of or hours on end. This influences people because they have to get used to playing outside and entertaining themselves for the tome when there is no electricity. The water they get comes from the rain. That’s why on the roads many people pray that it rains. In Jakarta especially, people count on rice. They don’t consider it a meal, if there is no rice.
In conclusion, both these countries have similar living styles, and are similar in many ways. Also both these countries, since they are poor need help, so they can thrive and live like most 1st world countries.

20% of them told they came from reference

10% told they got leaflets

How These Entrepreneurs Run Their Businesses — While Watching Their Kids Full-Time

Griffin “Griff” Kubik is holding a dog leash, his 3-year-old fingers wrapped around the vinyl cord as a terrier sniffs the grass near his feet. It might not look like it to passersby in the park, but the duo are on the clock: They’re on a photo shoot, the dog is about to be in Chicago Parent magazine, and Griff is playing unofficial dog wrangler. Nearby, Griff’s parents are setting up the next shot.
“Hold tight to the leash, Griff,” calls his mother. He’s used to taking instruction. His parents are cofounders of , which, with more than 1,200 sessions a year, is one of Chicago’s biggest family photography companies. Dad (Thomas) is the principal photographer; Mom (Tiana) is the management whiz. They have a team of three other photographers, as well as cullers, editors and admin support. And through it all, Griff has been a constant presence: The business is one endless Take Your Kid to Work Day. “We’re not taking Griff along because we can’t find a babysitter,” Thomas says after the shoot. “We want him involved, and being entrepreneurs means we have the flexibility to spend that time together.”
The Kubiks are part of a growing class of business owners who refuse to choose between full-time and work, instead merging the two worlds into one big family operation. But that brings a fresh series of hurdles in addition to the usual startup stresses: making sure the business and the kids are getting enough attention, explaining the kids’ presence to clients and staff and finding some kind of when work and life are intertwined. But like the Kubiks, many think the benefits outweigh the extra challenges — and they’re getting creative about finding solutions.

For Kelly Schneider, split shifts are the answer. Based in Bloomfield Hills, Mich., she spends most of the day with her 3-, 4- and 5-year-old children, and the bulk of her afternoons and evenings running a company called . But when those shifts overlap, it means bringing the kids to a client meeting or taking a call while they’re playing in the background. “Most people are understanding,” she says. “But if I have to do a Skype tutoring session for a full hour, that’s really stressful. I’ll set the kids up with a TV show and explain to them that if they can’t be quiet for an hour, I’m going to lose this job. One started saying, ‘Mom’s going to lose the house if we’re not good.’”
Even with the added stress, Schneider says entrepreneurship has kept her sane amid the chaos of parenting. And while she’s eager to grow beyond her current stable of 10 tutors, she wants to be thoughtful about expansions. “I’ve been growing in a way that I don’t have to sacrifice my whole week,” she says. “There are things I could have done to grow faster, but then I’d have had to dedicate every waking minute to the business. And I don’t want that.”
Neither do most parents. When Margaret Hardigan launched a local Chicago group for work-from-home moms last year, nearly 500 members signed up in the first nine months. “People want to be present parents but also do something with that magical degree they spent all that time getting,” says Hardigan, who runs a marketing and events agency while home with her two kids.“Having your own business gives you the flexibility to do both — but it’s also really, really difficult.”
The group, , hosts monthly incubator meetings for business owners and weekly working dates at local play spaces, so parents can pound their laptops while kids run amok in the background. RocketMamas’ online forum has become a safe place to troubleshoot problems particular to this realm: How do you organize your home office amid the kid clutter? (Threaten to throw away any toys that wind up in your space.) Does anyone want to set up a childcare swap next week? (Oh, yes.) What activities keep your kids entertained for more than 10 minutes? (Washable markers!) “If you want to be running a successful company, you have to have some structure in place,” Hardigan says. “That starts with building a village of like-minded parents who understand.”
Connections like these can also grow beyond networking. “Our circle of friends changed,” Tiana Kubik says. “We’re now naturally closer to other families trying to do this, too — but that’s been a huge source of support.” It has also given them enough confidence to go through it all again: The Kubiks are expecting their second child this month. “With Griff, there was no maternity leave,” Tiana says. “I was answering emails on my phone from my hospital bed. But now we’ve built a team — I won’t be doing nothing, but I won’t have to be on the front lines the entire time.”

Government paper

During this course, you will create a company profile. You will begin this    project in this unit, and new sections will be added in Units II, III, V, and    VII. For this first section, you will select a company, describe it, and    develop  a report on the social responsibility efforts of that company.
The paper should give a background of your selected company (fast facts). For   example, what is the name of the company, what does it produce, how big is it,    and where is it located?
In addition, include an overview of the corporate social initiatives of the    firm. Sources of information for this component are an annual report of the   firm  available at the website of the company. Be sure to do the following    things in  your overview:

Illustrate the concept and application of social responsibility.
Explain the benefits of social responsibility.
Apply the four Is of the nonmarket environment to your selected            company.
Identify the nonmarket influences on your chosen company.
Describe the impact of nonmarket action on your company.

Your paper should be a minimum of three pages in length, and you should use    at least two academic sources. All sources used must be cited and referenced in    APA format. You should also format your paper in APA style to include a title    page and reference page.
Note: We will build on this selected firm throughout the course. In Unit VII,   you will submit a final report on the firm.

its brand value compared to heritage brand-Maggi would be lower and hence this could be the key 25 Study on Knorr Soupy Noodles Market in Goa reason why customers do not purchase Knorr soupy noodles. On further analyses it was known that

POL 2

 
Draw from the information gained in your first research paper and expand your research to follow up in a new paper. Write three to four (3-4) new pages that address the following:

Define presidential doctrine and summarize the regional or global events during the Cold War leading up to the formation of the presidential doctrine you wrote about in Assignment 1.  
Select one country you wrote about in Assignment 1 and describe the Cold War relationship that existed between the country you selected and the U.S. before the presidential doctrine was announced.
Describe the relationship that currently exists between the U.S. and the country you selected in section (2) above.
Describe the effect that the presidential doctrine has had on regional or global affairs since it was announced during the Cold War.
Assess whether the presidential doctrine you wrote about in Assignment 1 had had the intended effect of altering the behavior of the country you selected in section (2) above in the time since the doctrine was first announced.
Cite at least four (4) reputable sources in addition to the textbook, not including Wikipedia, encyclopedias, or dictionaries.

To help you understand this assignment further, the following description and examples may be useful.
Step 1: Define a doctrine and identify why a president would want to announce one. A doctrine is an ideological platform that a president uses to advance a policy towards a country or region in order to accomplish foreign policy goals for the United States, so you will need to expand on this theme. 
Refer back to Assignment 1 and build on whatever doctrine you wrote about then.  Say, for example, you selected the Truman Doctrine. Therefore, this is the only thing you will write about in Assignment 2 step 1.
Step 2: Select one country you wrote about in Assignment 1 and describe the Cold War relationship that existed between it and the U.S. before the presidential doctrine was announced. 
In the case of Truman, you would pick either the Soviet Union, Greece, or Iran, because all three were affected by his doctrine.  If you are writing about the Eisenhower Doctrine, you would choose Lebanon or Egypt; if you wrote about the Kennedy Doctrine, you would have write about Cuba or Vietnam; if your wrote about the Nixon Doctrine, you would choose either Vietnam, Saudi Arabia, or Iran; if you chose Carter, you would select either Iran or Afghanistan; and if you wrote about the Reagan Doctrine, you would select Nicaragua, Angola, Russia, or Afghanistan (although there were several others).
Step 3: Describe what effect the presidential doctrine you chose has had on regional or global affairs since it was announced during the Cold War. 
That is, how did the doctrine change the status quo regionally or globally after it was announced by the U.S.?  What happened in Western Europe after the Truman Doctrine was announced?  What happened in the Middle East after the Eisenhower Doctrine was announced?  What happened with Cuba or Vietnam after Kennedy offered up his doctrine of flexible response?  What happened in Southeast Asia or the Persian Gulf after the Nixon Doctrine went in effect?  What happened in the Middle East after the Carter Doctrine was announced?  What happened in Central America or Africa or the Middle East after Reagan announced his doctrine?
Step 4: Refer back to the country you selected in step two and describe the relationship that currently exists between the U.S. and that country. 
How has the relationship changed between the U.S. and that country since the doctrine was announced?
Step 5: Evaluate whether the presidential doctrine had had the intended effect of altering the behavior of the one country you selected in section (2) above since the doctrine was first announced.
Your assignment must:

Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

Identify the cultural, economic, and political context of information resources, and interpret information in light of that context.
Use technology and information resources to research issues in international problems.
Write clearly and concisely about international problems using proper writing mechanics.

Actor Audience Relationship

Actor Audience Relationship In my most honest opinion, I believe the ideal actor audience relationship is something that transcends the normal criteria for a performer/audience relationship. It can be a passive or active relationship, for both types fulfill their purpose-creating emotional stimuli- on some level. There is an unspoken, unseen connection between those in the seat and those in the stage. Both viewer and actor feed off each other, whether it is the subtle shedding of a tear from the front row or the impact of a tomato on an underwhelming performer’s face.
There wouldn’t be an audience without actors and vice versa for the audience pays for a ticket to be entertained and the actor performs to entertain the audience. What an audience member wants from an actor/production could be anything; a reminisce of a lost love, resonating a political reservation, a laugh-all these differentiating factors form the distinction that the way an audience acts towards a play totally up to the VIEWER.
It’s their emotional responses; a play does not dictate one how to act but it is the responsibility of the actors and crew to produce emotions. Though on one hand some plays seem more fit to be taken more actively (Rocky Horror) and some more passively (Romeo and Juliet) because of their contextual meanings and how the production as a whole sees itself. A play full of beautiful monologues and sonnets is meant for the more passive viewer, to be soaked into the mind amidst audience silence where musicals sometimes prompt one to move their body and even sings.

Some plays might not mean anything to an audience member so they will remain totally at the end of the passive spectrum just watching actors and waiting to leave their seat. The audience shapes the performance by acting as to whom the playwright wrote for before the production hit the stage. A good playwright knows the audience/anticipation of an audience influences the juxposition of critical dramatic beats. So automatically the audience influences the script, something has to be written that will draw people into the seats.
Also the audience shapes the overall performances and charisma of actors for those who smile and applaud actively at one’s performance will encourage an actor to commit even further into “the illusion” while being booed might can an actors fumble his lines and throw the performance off balance, thus losing “the illusion”. Furthermore the audience also acts as critics, regarding the chances and reception of future performances. Most importantly, the audience is what pays the bills of everyone involved with the show.
Without the audience providing encouragement, criticism and money-there wouldn’t be the modern conception of a play. Ultimately I feel that the role of the audience should remain varied. Too much participation may not be right for some plays and too little participation may make you look like a lame duck (Rocky Horror for an example). Maybe that is why most plays institute the standard “fourth wall” rule, separating the stage from the audience because it would ruin “the illusion” of the so-called realism plays.
The appeal of audience involvement theorized by the playwright Augusto Boal’s theatrical form of breaking down the “fourth wall” so everyone can participate in the drama seems to be on the rise again, for the evolution of the there world is giving way to experimental writers and directors who encourage audience involvement In the end I feel that Boal’s ideas may be too much of a good thing, and the actor-audience relationship is one where the audience mutes themselves (aside from laughter and applause) and lets the actors on stage be the sole center of attention where the activity of communication/reaction is transported passively to the viewer. (1) Felner, Mira. The World of Theater: Tradition and Innovation. 2006, Pearson.

according to findings conducted by Kozinets et. al. (2010)

the motivators are more multifaceted including the individual’s personality