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With HIV/AIDS, communication is the key preventive measure, which is very important in influencing behaviors of an individual and the society. Since many varying contexts determine behaviors, it is important therefore to reevaluate the communication approaches used in the prevention of HIV/AIDS. The above should be applied to areas in the world that the spread of HIV/AIDS infection is very high.

In this case, therefore, many of the theoretical frameworks in the prevention of HIV/AIDS was adopted from the sociological and communication theories, and some of them have been borrowed from activities such as family planning which has successfully used Information, Education, and Communication in fulfilling their strategies. Owing to the case above, this proposal will use the same approach as a method of trying to understand the community and at the same time get into the core of the affected community in the quest of reducing the HIV/AIDS pandemic. In this regard, therefore, this proposal will place its emphasis on the AIDS Reduction Model and the Health Belief Theory.

The Health Belief Model was a health communication theory adopted in the 1950s. Its main aim it predicts a person’s response to, use of, screening and other preventive measures in health services. The theory will be helpful to a wide range of behavior and the community at large due to its vast knowledge in sexual education. The above is due to the emphasis that the theory puts on individuals when it comes to sexuality such as using protection when doing sex. In this manner, the theory focuses on primary prevention strategies such as those which help in reducing the spread of the virus. The theory also focuses on secondary prevention by having programs that increase early detection of the HIV/AIDS virus among individuals. This theory was successfully applied in to determine the use of condoms in female students in Cameroon, and therefore it is one of the best frameworks to use when addressing the issue of HIV/AIDS in Dallas (Zotor and Tarkang, 2015).

Zotor B., F. and Tarkang E., E. (2015). Application of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in HIV Prevention: A Literature Review. Online < http://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/html/10.11648.j.cajph.20150101.11.html>



I think the Health Belief Model is a good choice for your topic and target population. Are you thinking of using health communication and health education intervention strategies?

Do remember to be very careful about using the specific public health terms used in the textbook. Health Belief Theory is not the name of the theory, it has to be Health Belief Model. I realize this is confusing since sometimes we use the term “model” and other times “theory.”


Discussion: Project Support Area (Health Promotion Program Proposal)

Hello Class,

For this week’s discussion update on my Health Promotion Program Proposal-The Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in my community of Saint Joseph County, Indiana State.

I chose to focus on the Intrapersonal level of intervention for my target population. This choice is based on the fact that the decision of the individual to make healthy lifestyle changes that would positively impact his/her health and prevent cardiovascular disease is personal. The Intrapersonal or Individual level of intervention focuses primarily on the individual’s health behavior (McKenzie, Nieger, & Thackeray, 2017).

The Intrapersonal level of intervention focuses on the individual’s knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, self-concept feelings, motivation, skills, and behavior (McKenzie, et al., 2017).

The objective of the Health Promotion Program Proposal is to get individuals to change behaviors that predispose to Heart Disease and embrace those behaviors that prevent heart disease, such as physical activities/exercises to reduce weight and regular blood pressure checks to avoid high blood pressure which are risk factors for heart disease (American Heart Association, 2017).


The Health Behavior Theory I have chosen to address heart disease prevention in my community is Health Believe Model (HBM) which is based on the simultaneous occurrence of three classes of factors, 1) The existence of enough health concerns to make heart disease relevant. 2) The belief that many people in the community are vulnerable to the development of CVD because of physical inactivity, overweight/obesity, and high blood pressure (Passives Threat). 3) The belief that following the recommended health promotion program proposal would reduce the prevalence and high mortality rate of heart disease-related deaths in the community, which is the highest in the State of Indiana at a reduced cost-financial and lack of self-efficacy (Perceived Barriers) (McKenzie, et al., 2017).

These perceived barriers must be overcome by the individuals before they can follow the health promotion recommendation. Self-efficacy is very crucial to the success of the health promotion program proposal for the prevention of CVD. It is essential for the target population that needs a lifestyle behavior change over a long-term should develop self-efficacy (McKenzie, et al., 2017).

For the priority population to embrace behavioral change, they must feel threatened and susceptible by their present behavioral pattern of physical inactivity that has resulted in overweight/obesity and high blood pressure (Passive Susceptibility), which if not addressed by the health promotion program proposal would lead to CVD (American Heart Association, 2017).

The target population must also believe that the behavior change to embark on physical activity/exercises will result in a valued outcome (reduction in the risk and prevalence of heart disease and the resultant mortality) (McKenzie, et al., 2017)        Also, the knowledge of the target population that CVD results in death or morbidity (Perceived  Seriousness/Severity) or having seen friends and family members who died from CVD would make the individuals think seriously about embracing the health promotion program proposal (McKenzie, 2017).

Physical inactivity, overweight/obesity, and high blood pressure are risk factors that would make individuals become concerned about heart disease (Perceived Threats).

The health promotion program proposal would empower the people to know that physical activities/exercises would postpone the onset of heart disease and would increase the possibility of survival if a heart attack occurs (Perceived  Benefits) (McKenzie, et al., 2017).

The confidence of the person to overcome the perceived barriers (weather, lack of self-efficacy, finance) and exercise regularly would determine the success of the health promotion program proposal among the population (McKenzie, et al., 2017).

The target population would examine the threats of CVD against the difference between benefits and barriers. The persons would now decide to embark on the exercise because of the perceived benefits or not (likelihood of taking recommended preventive health action (McKenzie, et al., 2017).


The Intervention Strategies I would like to employ for the health promotion program proposal for the prevention of heart disease include, 1) Health communication strategies to inform, increase awareness, and impact both individual and community decisions that affect their health (McKenzie, et al., 2017).

The form of the health communication strategies would include the mass media advocacy, risk communication, public relations, print materials, television, radio, electronic communication, billboards, and social media to disseminate the information about the health promotion program proposal for CVD to reach as many members of the community as possible (McKenzie, et al., 2017). Health communication strategies are also crucial in reaching many of the goals and objectives of the Health Promotion Program Proposal. Health Communication Strategies have the highest penetration rate to reach many members of the target population (McKenzie, et al., 2017).

Health communication strategies alone are often insufficient to change the behavior of the individuals and reduce the risk of CVD (McKenzie, et al., 2017).

2) Health Education Strategies would be used in combination with Health Communication Strategies to enable and reinforce voluntary behavior decisions conducive to the health of individuals, groups, or community. The Health Education Strategy would include such settings as classes, seminars, workshops, and courses, both face to face and online, to educate the population about the risk factors of heart disease (McKenzie, et al., 2017).

Though health communication strategies are often used for health promotion program proposal intervention strategies, health education strategies provide the opportunity for the target population to gain in-depth knowledge about the risk factors, prevalence, morbidity, and mortality attributed to CVD (McKenzie, et al., 2017).


The health promotion program activity which I would embark on includes, meetings with all stakeholders to increase awareness among the stakeholders about the urgent need of intervention to adequately address this preventable, devastating disease on the public health of the community. I would also organize town hall meetings with members of the community and their leaders to inform, increase awareness of the severity of the heart disease on the community population. I would organize seminars, workshops, and courses to increase the awareness of this preventable silent killer disease in the community. I will organize regular blood pressure checks for the community members through the local or community health centers. I will embark on an aggressive health promotion campaign through advertisements in the print, electronic, social media, brochures, flyers, posters, bill-boards about the severity of the CVD on the public health of the community.  I will let the target population understand that CVD is preventable despite its devastating effect on the community,  I will encourage the community members to engage in physical activities/exercises on a regular basis in the gyms, at home and also encourage people to join the Zumba dance groups as a form of physical exercise.



McKenzie, J. F., Neiger, B. L., & Thackeray, R.  (2017). Planning,

implementing, and evaluating health promotion

programs: A  primer (7th ed.). San Francisco,

CA: Pearson. American Heart Association, (2017), What Is Heart Disease.

Retrieved from  https://www.heart.org .




FINAL PROJECT ISTRCUTIONS AGAIN IN HERE, please see the EXAMPLE of FINAL PAPER I uploaded in adobe doc. On homeworkmarket, you follow this exact order and develop on it ( as in EXAMPLE PROJECT):


Obtaining the funding and/or approval to develop a program is often dependent upon one’s ability to clearly articulate each element of the proposed program. Proposing a health promotion program requires a well-thought-out plan that clearly identifies the health condition, target population, and anticipated activities.

Modules 2, 3, and 4 have covered the steps for planning and designing a health promotion program. For this Assignment,you will submit a proposal for the health promotion program you have been developing that meets a health need for a specific community.

12- to 15-page proposal (double- spaced, Times New Roman font):

Cover page should include:

· Project title

· Primary contact person, title

Sections of your proposal:

1. Introduction

a. Briefly describe the project relevance and need

b. Describe how your project complements or adds to other similar initiatives.

2. Community Description

a. Describe the target audience(s) for the project (e.g. health practitioners, policy-makers, underserved population).

b. Provide list the geographic location(s) and sites/settings (e.g. hospital, community-based center, school, work setting) where the project activities will take place.

3. Needs Assessment

a. Provide a summary of the mini-needs assessment conducted to determine a priority health issue for this community. The mini-needs assessment should be based on available statistics.

4. Socio-ecological factors

a. Provide a description of the primary socio-ecological factors related to the health issue.

5. Stakeholders

a. Identify and describe types of resources and community stakeholders. Indicate the name of the partners you will work with during the project. Describe the role and contribution of each partner.

b. Provide a description of the stakeholder collaboration strategy that would be used and explain why it is most appropriate.

6. Mission, goals and objectives

a. Identify

· the mission,

· at least one program goal and

· at least two objectives

7. Theoretical framework

a. Identify the theory or model used to guide development of the interventions and provide a rationale for your selection.

8. Intervention strategy

a. Select an appropriate intervention strategy based on your theoretical framework that targets one of the socio-ecological factors associated with this health condition and target population.

9. Activities

a. Identify at least two specific program activities and explain how it would be used in the program.

b. Explain how each activity is related to your theoretical framework.

10. Logic Model

Develop a Logic Model for the program

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