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Immunology Study Guide 1. Define serotype specific antibody in an infection. Give an example Ans:

Immunology Study Guide
1. Define serotype specific antibody in an infection. Give an example

2. Trypanosome brucei infection causes
A. sleeping sickness
B. malaria
C. tuberculosis

3. Trypanosoma brucei infection is an example for
a. Gene conversion
b. Antigenic drift
c. Antigenic shift

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4. Herpes virus infection is an example for
a. Latency
b. Antigenic drift
c. Gene conversion

5. Which among the following is not a mucosal tissue
a. Gastrointestinal tract
b. Respiratory tract
c. Uro-genital tract
d. Nervous system

6. Describe one benefit of intestinal microbes

7. Mark the wrong answer
a. Mucosal immunity causes inflammation
b. Mucosal Immunity produces primarily IgA antibody
c. Mucosal surface has a coating of mucin
d. Mucosal immune system has specialized structures similar to lymph nodes

8. Mucin is a                               found in mucus surfaces
a. Lipid
b. Carbohydrate
c. Nucleic acid
d. Protein

9. Isolated lymphoid follicles are present in                              and
2. whereas Peyer’s patches are found only in
a. a. Small intestine
b. b. Large intestine
c. c. Esophagus

10. Homing of effector cells to gut is regulated by expression of
a. IL-2
b. IL-6
c. Integrin α4:β7
d. Selectin

11. Secretory immunoglobulins become attached to the
a. Mucus
b. Cilia
c. Endothelial cells

12. Transport of Immunoglobulin across epithelial cells is called
a. Transcytosis
b. Transformation
c. Transcription

13. Protective immunity against parasitic infection is primarily mediated by
a. T helper 2 (Th2) cells
b. Th1 cells
c. Regulatory T cells
d. NK cells

14. Immunological memory is achieved by
a. Memory B cells
b. Memory T cells
c. Both memory T and B cells
d. NK cells
e. Basophils

16. Name two proteins those are differentially expressed in Naïve T cells versus memory T cells
17. Name the enzyme used by AIDS virus to make complementary DNA(cDNA)
18. AIDS virus gains entry to human cells using
a. CD4
b. CD8
c. IL2
d. IL4

19. In AIDS, the disease condition aggravates due to depletion of
a. CD4 cells
b. CD8 cells
c. B cells
d. Neutrophils

20. Name one pathogen associated with advanced stages of HIV infection that causes disease condition and possibly death

21. In transplantation, steroids are used to
a. Suppress immunity
b. Develop muscles
c. As a nutrition supplement

23. Name a virus associated with cancer

24. In an infection, T cells are activated by                      and B-cells are activated by
a. a. Follicular dendritic cells
b. b. Dendritic cells

25. Name an adhesion molecule involved in homing of T cells to the lymph node draining an infection

26. Proliferation and differentiation of naïve T cells is activated by the cytokine
a. IL-4
b. IL-6
c. IL-10
d. IL-2

27. The co-stimulator                           binds to its receptor
a. CD28
b. CD4
c. B7
d. IL7

28. Differentiation of T cells to the Th2 subsets are induced by
a. IL-4
b. IL-2
c. IL-10
d. IL-12

29. In allergy reactions, IgE bound to                            bind to allergens.
a. B-cells
b. T-cells
c. Mast cells
d. NK cells

30. Name the two types of mast cells
31. Name an effector molecule release by mast cells and its function
32. Name an effector molecule released by eosinophil and its function
33. Name a gene which has an altered function in asthma that affects immunity
34. Give an example of type 2 autoimmunity
35. Name one mechanism(central or peripheral) that contributes to immunological self-tolerance
36. Name one disease caused by altered function of AIRE
37. Name an autoimmune disease affecting thyroid gland
38. Name an autoimmune disorder affecting muscle
39. Name the two types of memory cells
40. Name two differences between primary and secondary immune responses
41. What are the different types of effector CD4 T-cells

42. Name an effector molecule released by CD8 T cells
43. In B-cell activation,                            act as a store-house of antigens
a. Lymph nodes
b. Follicular dendritic cells
c. Macrophages
d. Dendritic cells

44. Serum sickness is a                           of allergy
a. Type 1
b. Type 2
c. Type 3
d. Type 4

45. Describe how attenuated vaccines are prepared

46. Because the mucosae _____, this tissue is predisposed to infection.
a. constitute thin, permeable barriers
b. secrete a continuous layer of mucus
c. generate enzymes and proteoglycans
d. are associated with secretory IgA production
e. are not connected to the lymphatics.

47. Identify which of the following is not a property of secreted mucins.
a. contain glycosylated cysteine residues
b. contain many repetitive sequence motifs
c. constitute a viscous matrix stabilized by disulfide bonds
d. bind to positively charged effector molecules
e. encoded by seven genes in humans
f. expressed in different mucosal tissues.

48. Unlike secreted mucins, membrane mucins _____.
a. do not trap and kill nearby microorganisms
b. are not cross-linked by disulfide bonds
c. do not possess repetitive domains
d. are not glycosylated
e. are encoded by only one gene in humans.

49. Commensal microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract facilitate all of the following except _____.
a. compete with pathogenic variants for nutrients and space
b. convert toxic substances to benign derivatives
c. degrade plant fibers to make their nutrients available
d. secrete enzymes required for protein degradation
e. synthesize essential metabolites
f. induce the development of gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

50. The large population of microbes that contribute to the gut microbiota and have an important role in food processing are called _____.
a. lamina propria
b. Peyer’s patches
c. microfold cells
d. commensal microorganisms
e. opportunists.

51. All of the following are part of Waldeyer’s ring except _____.
a. appendix
b. palatine tonsils
c. lingual tonsils
d. adenoids.

52. Which of the following pairs is mismatched? (Select all that apply.)
a. appendix: large intestine
b. mesenteric lymph nodes: urogenital tract
c. effector compartment: induction of adaptive immune responses
d. adenoids: base of nose
e. villi: small intestine
f. Peyer’s patches: afferent lymphatics.

53. At which anatomical location are Peyer’s patches?
a. stomach
b. small intestine
c. cecum
d. large intestine
e. Waldeyer’s ring.
54. Laboratory animals reared in gnotobiotic conditions _____.
a. are fed probiotics to disrupt the composition of their microflora
b. lack normal gut microbiota
c. develop appendicitis
d. have larger secondary lymphoid tissues than do control animals
e. have elevated levels of SIgA in the gut lumen.

55. _____ microorganisms are microbes that colonize mucosal surfaces but under normal circumstances do not cause disease.
a. Opportunistic
b. Commensal
c. Parasitic
d. Mesenteric
e. Pathogenic.

56. _____ makes up the membranes of connective tissue that help to anchor the gastrointestinal tract and hold it in place.
a. The mesentery
b. Peyer’s patches
c. The lamina propria
d. The subepithelial dome
e. Waldeyer’s ring.

57. Waldeyer’s ring includes which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
a. Peyer’s patches
b. lingual tonsils
c. adenoids
d. mesenteric lymph nodes
e. palatine tonsils.

58 Which of the following describe M cells in the gut? (Select all that apply.)
a. They derive their name from mucus cells.
b. They are located in the dome of a Peyer’s patch.
c. They deliver antigens and pathogens from the lymphoid tissue to the luminal side of the gut mucosa by transcytosis.
d. They are protected from digestive enzymes by a thick glycocalyx and a layer of mucus.
e. They do not directly participate in antigen processing or presentation.

59 Mucosae of a healthy intestinal tract _____. (Select all that apply.)
a. have a large number of activated T and B cells
b. harbor T cells bearing a very wide diversity of antigen specificities
c. contain intraepithelial lymphocytes
d. have large numbers of resident neutrophils
e. are populated with both α:β and γ:δ effector T cells.
60. Which of the following migrates from non-mucosal tissue to draining lymph nodes to facilitate the induction of adaptive immune responses?
a. dendritic cells
b. macrophages
c. NK cells
d. neutrophils
e. commensal microorganisms.

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