1. Beginning in January 2011 “The Arab Spring” arrived in the Middle East in the form of public demonstrations, crowds in the 1,000s, in Tunesia. A month later in Egypt – then in several other Middle East countries. The crowds were there to stay until some of their demands were met. Some of the reasons for, methods used, countries involved, and results (to date) included:
a) Islamic groups often reaped the harvest when new elections were held. This was due to the fact that they were the best organized groups, not necessarily the most desired.
b) increasing sources of social media had enabled people to find ways to circumvent domestic censors and report events in neighboring countries.
c) as the démonstrations spread the Emir of Bahrain ordered the security forces to crush the demonstrators there. As in Egypt the military refused to fire on the crowds and neighboring forces did not have to be called in.
d) groups found reasons for discontent to exist in a wide variety of area states, including unemployment, poor government services,rising prices, and corruption.
e) months of demonstrations throughout the region showed young women in activist roles that went far beyond the areas of past cultural experiences.
f) in the first free election after Mubarak was forced out in Egypt Mohammad Morsi was elected president after promising that the Copts would have their rights and women would not be forced to wear the headscarf. He both failed to keep these promises and failed to govern effectively and he was forced out of office by a general election:
g) The Arab-Spring results were not what the demonstrators had wanted. Most brought only minor change, others resulted in warfare and death.
2. When european colonial powers became interested in the Middle East it changed the region forever. European interests were diverse but their methods often similar. Great Britian:
a) promised a national homeland for the Arabs, autonomy for the Kurds, a homeland for the Jews, a Caliphate for Sharif Hussein of Mecca, the Palestinians full rights in Palestine, and gave Ibn Saud part of Kuwait
b) united Basra, Baghdad, and Medina into a country and called it Irag – then put Faisal on the throne (Abdullah’s brother)
c) neglected to obtain oil concessions from the Gulf Emirs before they (Great Britian) pulled out of the area – as everyone knew there was no oil in the Gulf
d) secretly signed the Sykes-Picot Agreement with Russia during WWI which divided land between Great Britian and Russia that had already been promised to Arabs, Palestinians, Jews, and etc.
e) above all élse, wanted a safe land route to India
3. Russian self-interests as well as committments and alliances included:
a) wanted guaranteed access through the Bosphrus and Dardenelles in exchange for backing the requests for mandates for France and Great Britian after WWI
b) had an agreement with the Palestinians to help them form an autonomous state after the war
c) pulling out of WWI before it was over
d) had no real interest in the Middle East after the war
e) wanted to fill a continent from ocean to ocean
f) wanted to help spread Islam across Russia
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4. French interests in the area included:
b) winning the Great Game with Russia and keeping her out of the
a) denying Russia access to the Sea of Marmara Middle East
c) invaded Syria and threw Faisal of: the throne
d) wanted a Mandate from the United Nations for Syria to protect the Maronite Christians – she also wanted Palestine
e) establishing a national Arab homeland
f) introducing the Balfour Declaration to back a Jewish Homeland
5. The Settlement of 1922/23 was meant to resolve the question of “What – as well as who – ” should replace the Ottoman Empire. Some of the aims, agreements, and results included:
a) the establishment of a Jewish – per the Balfour Declaration – homeland in Palestine was mandated by the League of Nations.
b) during World War I the British chose to sponsor the Hashemites (Hussain of Mecca and his sons) as the leaders of a postwar Arab Middle East.
c) an independent land for the Kurds was promised but not produced. d) Churchill recommended keeping the Ottoman Empire together but providing “management” of it by Great Britian.
e) Egypt was given independence from Russian occupation
f) the Jews were given the West Bank by the Balfour Declaration
6. Terrorism has increased in the Middle East since World War II. Some of the causes, results, and patterns include:
a) Many of the terrorist groups of the Middle East were established to urge a return to conservative (traditions1) Islam, and advocate revolutionary and anti-government positions
b) terrorism by the State may be used to quell terrorism by a group, and has been used by some States against its own citizens
c) it may be the result of religious beliefs or differences
d) sponsoring of terrorist groups by countries such as Syria and Iran
e) terrorist activities usually result in the injury or death of non-combatents (women, children, the elderly, etc.)
f) is usually never directed toward any particular ethnic group
g) is often used by individuals to attain their own personal ends, e.g. power, money, control, revenge, etc.
h) terrorism was never used by Arafat to bring international attention to the Palestinean cause
7. Mohammed revealed the appearance of the Angel Gabriel before him and began to preach about a new religion based on “one God. This new religion became known as Islam and was based on:
a) the Jihad, the prescedent of Mohammed’s personal behavior
b) Sharia Law, essentially western style secular law
c) the Hadith, examples set by the Prophet, recognized bv Shit
d) the Koran, words regarded as coming directly from God to Mohammed, through the Angel Gabriel
e) the Sunna, examples set by the local tribes.
f) Islam was spread by the Bedouin tribes of northern Arabia, often by Jihad
8. While it was not the first oil discovered in the Middle East, Bahrain produced the first oil in the Gulf. Bahrain was a good choice for the site of the first exploratory well:
a) as Bahrain had its concession agreements with France rather than Great Britian and France did not believe there was oil in the Gulf
b) as Bahrain had a cosmopolitan population well used to outsiders, new ideas, and change
c) it was one of the largest field discovered in the Gulf
d) there were oil seepages at the surface
e) their economic base of pearling had been both depleated and outmoded
f) oil exploration and drilling in Bahrain was done by the Americans
9. The discovery of oil in the Gulf brought about many changes and problems which included:
b) of the (local) to outside customs and ideas
a) need for an infrastructure to support the oil industry
c) determine borders to
e) large expatriate worker populations from India wanting citizenship
d) use of sea water in the extensive the the the need exposure to population establish drilling oil operations rights and voting privileges
f) France had the oil concessions for both Iran and Bahrain
PART II – Short Essay (12 points)
Islam is the unifying force of the Middle East, but is itself divided. List the Five Pillars of Islam, define them, and name the two groups involved in the schasm.
The Five Pillars of Islam are: Définition
PART III – FILL-IN (21 points)
1. The (group) held most of the Middle East from the 12 1500s to the end of World War I, while the occupied Iran around 1500, resulting in two Middle East powers, from two power bases, contending with each other.
2. The Declaration became a British supported cause which led to the formation of the State of (country)
3. “THE GREAT GAME” for the Middle East was played originally by what two countries, and .
4. (country) drew the lines that delineated the boundaries of Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and (country) She also sent military officers to train the Arab Legion of the country of in order to cut her own occupation expenses after World War I.
5. Hama Rules were established in the country of
6. The area (not country) from which the British chose both King Faisal and King Abdullah was the
7. After being expelled from Jordan in 1970, Yasir Arafat moved the headquarters of the (group) to (city)
8. For all his greatness at reviving the Palestinian cause, Arafat has never delivered on his ultimate promise of
9. Middle East nomads established primitive dwelling sites during the early stone age (Paleolithis), that met the three basic requirements for habitation. Of these three that we discussed, name two: and
10. President Rosevelt of the United States met with on a U.S. naval ship during World War II to set the groundwork for agreements between the two countries in the future.
11. The most wide-spread tree crop in the Middle East, as it has been for 1000s of years, is the (tree) .
12. The Middle East is the birthplace of the world’s three major monotheistic religions, , and , all of which worship the same God and trace their origins to the patriarch (name him).