1. Patients who have advanced kidney disease will often have anemia as a secondary complication. Explain why this is often the case.
2. Pam has type B negative blood. Which ABO antibodies does she have in her plasma and which antigen does she have on her blood cells? Could she donate blood to a family member with AB positive blood? Could she receive blood from that same family member? Explain your answers.
3. A young child with acute lymphocytic leukemia is being treated for an infection. The child’s parents don’t understand why their daughter is prone to infections since her White blood cell count is so high. How can you explain it to the parents?
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4. A newborn baby needs cardiac surgery because he was born with an aorta that arises from the right ventricle and a pulmonary trunk that emerges from the left ventricle, a syndrome termed transposition of the great vessels. Left untreated, what are the physiological consequences of this birth defect?
5. There are several anastomosis of blood vessels in different regions of the body, most importantly in the heart and the brain. What is an anastomosis, what are the primary vessels that form them in the heart and the brain, and why are they so important in these organs?
6. Emphysema is an incurable disease that affects the lungs. Explain the effects that Emphysema has on the respiratory system in terms of how it damages lung tissue and discuss the probable causes of emphysema in patients with the disease.